Intel and AMD Architecture and Programming Manuals

modified: 2 Oct 2004

Intel Manuals

The Intel Corporation provides many useful documents on the Pentium 4 Processor Technical Documentation page. Especially useful for helping you to understand the machine dependent code of Minix on an IBM-PC compatible machine will be the Manuals section. As of October 2004 the following manuals are available as PDF files (read with Adobe Acrobat or Ghostview):

These are all downloadable as PDF files (read with Adobe Acrobat or Ghostview). A CD-ROM containing the complete set of manuals can also be ordered from Intel.

AMD Manuals

All AMD processors for IBM-PC have the same IA-32 architecture as Intel processors. The differences are in multimedia technology, where AMD processors have 3DNOW! and other things... And the next AMD processor (x86-64) will be different, but still compatible with IA-32. So, the Intel docs will also help you understand and program for AMD processors. But, AMD provides manuals too -- they are available at the AMD64 Architecture Tech Docs page. These AMD manuals were available as of October 2004:

Note that the syntax of the assembly language used in Minix is different from Intel's. The Minix syntax is consistent with assembly languages used by other Unix-derived systems. Other links on the Programming in the Minix environment page on the Minix1 websites point to articles describing assembly language syntax.


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