Command:   elle - ELLE Looks Like Emacs
Syntax:    elle file [file2]
Flags:     (none)
Example:   elle file.c              # Start the editor

     ELLE (ELLE Looks Like Emacs) is an Emacs clone for MINIX.  ELLE  is
not full Emacs but it has about 80 commands and is quite fast.

Key bindings

     Mined only has a small number of commands.  All of them are  either
of  the  form  CTRL-x or are on the numeric keypad.  Emacs, in contrast,
has so many commands, that not only are all the CTRL-x commands used up,
but  so  are  all the ESC x (escape followed by x; escape is not a shift
character, like CTRL).  Even this is not enough, so CTRL-X is used as  a
prefix for additional commands.  Thus CTRL-X CTRL-L is a command, and so
is CTRL-X K.  Note that what  is  conventionally  written  as  CTRL-X  K
really  means  CTRL-X  k.   In  some contexts it is traditional to write
CTRL-X as ^X.  Please note that they mean the same thing.

     As a result, many Emacs commands need three or four key strokes  to
execute.   Some  people  think  3-4  key  strokes is too many.  For this
reason, Emacs and ELLE allow users to assign their own key bindings.  In
ELLE  this  is  done  with  'user  profiles.'   A user profile is a file
listing which function is invoked by which key stroke.  The user profile
is  then compiled by a program called ellec into binary form.  When ELLE
starts up it checks to see if a file .ellepro.b1 exists in $HOME.  If it
does, this file is read in and overrides the default bindings.

     A user profile that simulates the mined  commands  fairly  well  is
provided.  Its  installation is described later.  If you have never used
Emacs, it is suggested that you use the mined profile. If  you  normally
use  Emacs,  then  do  not install the mined profile.  You can also make
your own using ellec.  There is no Mock Lisp.

     ELLE has a  character-oriented  view  of  the  world,  not  a  line
oriented view, like ed. It does not have magic characters for searching.
However, you can use line feed in search patterns. For example, to  find
a  line  consisting of the three characters 'foo' all by themselves on a
line, using the mined bindings (see  below),  use  the  pattern:  CTRL-\
CTRL-J  f  o  o  CTRL-\  CTRL-J.   The CTRL- means to interpret the next
character literally, in this case it is CTRL-J, which is line feed.  You
can  also search for patterns involving multiple lines.  For example, to
find a line ending in an 'x' followed by a line beginning  with  a  'y',
use as pattern: x CTRL- CTRL-J y.

Mined Key Bindings

     These are the key bindings if the binary user profile, .ellepro.b1,
is  installed in $HOME.  The ESCAPE key followed by a number followed by
a command causes that command  to  be  executed  'number'  times.   This
applies  both  to  control characters and insertable characters.  CTRL-X
refers to a 'control character.'  ESC x refers to  an  escape  character
followed by x.  In other words, ^X is a synonym for CTRL-X.  ^X Y refers
to CTRL-X followed by y.  To abort the current command and  go  back  to
the main loop of the editor, type CTRL-G, rather than CTRL-\.

     Only a few commands are of the form CTRL-X Y.   All  of  these  are
also bound to CTRL-X CTRL-Y, so you can hold down CTRL and then hit X Y,
or release control after the X, as you prefer.

     The key bindings that are not listed should not be used.   Some  of
them actually do things.  For example, the ANSI escape codes ESC [ x are
bound to ^X Y for a variety of y.

     Some commands work on regions.  A region is  defined  as  the  text
between the most recently set mark and the cursor.

Mined Commands

     If the  mined  profile,  .ellepro.b1  is  installed  in  your  home
directory, the following commands will work.

      arrows         Move the cursor in the indicated direction
      CTRL-A         Move cursor to start of current line
      CTRL-Z         Move cursor to end of current line
      CTRL-F         Move cursor forward word
      CTRL-B         Move cursor backward to start of previous word

      Home key       Move to first character of the file
      End key        Move to last character of the file
      PgUp key       Scroll window up 22 lines (closer to start  of  the
      PgDn key       Scroll window down 22 lines (closer to end  of  the
      CTRL-U         Scroll window up 1 line
      CTRL-D         Scroll window down 1 line
      ESC ,          Move to top of screen
      CTRL-_         Move to bottom of screen

      DEL key        Delete the character under the cursor
      Backsp         Delete the character to left of the cursor
      CTRL-N         Delete the next word
      CTRL-P         Delete the previous word
      CTRL-T         Delete tail of line (all characters from cursor  to
                     end of line)
      CTRL-O         Open up the line (insert line feed and back up)
      ESC G          Get and insert a file at the cursor position (CTRL-
                     G in mined)

      CTRL-^         Set mark at current position for  use  with  CTRL-C
                     and CTRL-K
      CTRL-C         Copy the text between the mark and the cursor  into
                     the buffer
      CTRL-K         Delete text between mark and cursor; also  copy  it
                     to the buffer
      CTRL-Y         Yank contents of the buffer out and  insert  it  at
                     the cursor

      numeric +      Search forward (prompts for expression)
      numeric -      Search backward (prompts for expression)
      CTRL-]         ESC n CTRL-[ goes to  line  n  (slightly  different
                     syntax than mined)
      CTRL-R         Global replace pattern with string (from cursor  to
      CTRL-L         Replace pattern with string within the current line
      CTRL-W         Write the edited file back to the disk
      CTRL-S         Fork off a shell (use CTRL-D to  get  back  to  the
      CTRL-G         Abort whatever the editor was doing  and  wait  for
                     command (CTRL-)
      CTRL-E         Redraw screen with cursor line  positioned  in  the
      CTRL-V         Visit (edit) a new file
      CTRL-Q         Write buffer to a file
      ESC X          Exit the editor

Non-Mined Commands

      ESC P          Forward paragraph (a paragraph is a line  beginning
                     with a dot)
      ESC ]          Backward paragraph
      ESC .          Indent this line as much as the previous one

      CTRL-\         Insert  the  next  character  (used  for  inserting
                     control characters)
      ESC T          Transpose characters
      ESC W          Transpose words
      ESC =          Delete white space (horizontal space)
      ESC |          Delete blank lines (vertical space)

      ESC M          Mark current paragraph
      ESC ^          Exchange cursor and mark
      ESC Y          Yank back the next-to-the-last kill  (CTRL-Y  yanks
                     the last one)
      ESC A          Append next kill to kill buffer

      ESC /          Start Keyboard Macro
      ESC \          End Keyboard Macro
      ESC *          View Keyboard Macro (the PrtSc key on  the  numeric
                     pad is also a *)
      ESC E          Execute Keyboard Macro

      ^X 1           Enter one window mode
      ^X 2           Enter two window mode
      ^X L           Make the current window larger
      ^X P           Make the window more petit/petite  (Yes,  Virginia,
                     they are English)
      ^X N           Next window
      ^X W           New window

      numeric 5      Display the list of current files and buffers
      ESC B          Select a buffer
      ESC S          Select an existing buffer
      ESC N          Mark a buffer as NOT modified (even  if  it  really

      ESC I          Set first character of word to upper case
      ESC C          Capitalize current word
      ESC O          Make current word ordinary (i.e., lower case)
      ESC U          Set entire region between mark and cursor to  upper
      ESC L          Set entire region between mark and cursor to  lower

      ESC F          Find file and read it into its own buffer
      ESC Z          Incremental search
      ESC Q          Like CTRL-R, but queries at each occurrence (type ?
                     for options)
      ESC R          Reset the user profile from a file
      ESC H          Help (ELLE prompts for the 1 or 2 character command
                     to describe)
      ESC ;          Insert a comment in a C program  (generates  /*  */
                     for you)
      ^X X           Exit the editor (same as ESC X and CTRL-X CTRL-X)

The major differences between ELLE with  the  mined  profile  and  mined
itself are:

   1. The definition of a 'word' is different for forward  and  backward
   2. The mark is set with CTRL-^ instead of CTRL-@
   3. Use CTRL-G to abort a command instead of CTRL-\
   4. Use CTRL- to literally insert the next character, instead of ALT
   5. CTRL-E adjusts the window to put the cursor in the middle of it
   6. To get and insert a file, use ESC G instead of CTRL-G
   7. To go to line n, type ESC n CTRL-[ instead of CTRL-[ n
   8. You exit with CTRL-X CTRL-X and then answer the question with 'y'.
   9. There are many new commands, windows, larger files, etc.

Emacs Key Bindings

     If you do not  have  the  mined  profile  installed,  you  get  the
standard  Emacs  key  bindings.   These  are  listed below. Commands not
listed are not implemented.

      CTRL-F         Forward one character.
      CTRL-B         Backward one character.
      CTRL-H         Same as CTRL-B: move backward one character.
      ESC F          Forward one word.
      ESC B          Backward one word.
      CTRL-A         Beginning of current line.
      CTRL-E         End of current line.
      CTRL-N         Next line (goes to the next line).
      CTRL-P         Previous line (goes to the previous line).
      CTRL-V         Beginning of next screenful.
      ESC V          Beginning of previous screenful.
      ESC ]          Forward Paragraph.
      ESC [          Backward Paragraph.
      ESC <          Beginning of whole buffer.
      ESC >          End of whole buffer.

      CTRL-D         Deletes forward one character (the one  the  cursor
                     is under).
      DELETE         Deletes backward one character (the one to left  of
      ESC D          Kills forward one word.
      ESC DEL        Kills backward one word.
      CTRL-K         Kills the rest of the line (to  the  right  of  the
      ESC \          Deletes spaces around the cursor.
      ^X CTRL-O      Deletes blank lines around the cursor.

      ESC C          Capitalizes word : first letter becomes  uppercase;
                     rest lower
      ESC L          Makes the whole next word lowercase.
      ESC U          Makes the whole next word uppercase.
      ^X CTRL-L      Makes whole region lowercase.
      ^X CTRL-U      Makes whole region uppercase.

   SEARCHING (If no string is given, previous string is used)
      CTRL-S         Incremental Search forward; prompts 'I-search:'
      CTRL-R         Reverse Incremental Search; prompts 'R-search:'

                     During  an  incremental   search,   the   following
                     characters have special effects:

                     'normal'    - Begin searching immediately.
                     ^G          - Cancel I-search, return to start.
                     DEL         - Erase  last  char,  return  to   last
                     ^S, ^R      - Repeat search (or change direction).
                     ESC or CR   - Exit I-search at current point.

      ESC %          Query Replace. Interactive replace. Type '?' to see
      ^X %           Replace  String.  Like  Query  Replace,   but   not

      CTRL-^         Set mark
      ^X CTRL-X      Exchange cursor and mark.
      ESC H          Mark Paragraph. Sets mark and cursor to surround  a
      CTRL-W         Wipe-out -- kills a 'region':
      ESC W          Copy region. Like CTRL-W then CTRL-Y  but  modifies
      CTRL-Y         Yanks-back  (un-kills)  whatever  you   have   most
                     recently killed.
      ESC Y          Yanks-back (un-kills) the next most recently killed
      ESC CTRL-W     Append Next Kill. Accumulates  stuff  from  several

      ESC Q          Fill the paragraph to the size of the Fill Column.
      ESC G          Fill the region.
      ^X F           Set Fill Column. ESC Q will use this line size.
      ^X .           Set Fill Prefix. Asks for prefix string
      ^X T           Toggles Auto Fill Mode.

      ^X 2           Make two windows (split screen).
      ^X 1           Make one window (delete window) (make one screen).
      ^X O           Go to Other window.
      ^X ^           Grow window: makes current window bigger.

      ^X CTRL-F      Find a file and make a buffer for it.
      ^X B           Select Buffer: goes to specified  buffer  or  makes
                     new one
      ^X CTRL-B      Show the names of the buffers used in this  editing
      ^X K           Kill Buffer.
      ESC tilde      Say buffer is not modified.
      ^X CTRL-M      Toggle EOL mode (per-buffer flag).

      ^X (           Start collecting a keyboard macro.
      ^X )           Stop collecting.
      ^X E           Execute the collected macro.
      ^X *           Display the collected macro.

      ^X CTRL-I      Insert a file where cursor is.
      ^X CTRL-R      Read a new file into current buffer.
      ^X CTRL-V      Same as ^X ^R above (reads a file).
      ^X CTRL-W      Write buffer out to new file name.
      ^X CTRL-S      Save file: write out buffer to its file name.
      ^X CTRL-E      Write region out to new file name.

      ^X CTRL-Z      Exit from ELLE.
      ^X !           Escape to shell (CTRL-D to return)
      CTRL-O         Open up line
      LINEFEED       Same as typing RETURN and TAB.
      CTRL-T         Transposes characters.
      ESC T          Transposes words.
      CTRL-U         Makes the next command happen four times.
      CTRL-U number  Makes the next command happen 'number' times.
      ESC number     Same as CTRL-U number.
      CTRL-L         Refreshes screen.
      CTRL-U CTRL-L  Refresh only the line cursor is on.
      CTRL-U n CTRL-L Change window so the cursor is on line n
      CTRL-Q         Quote: insert the next character no matter what  it
      CTRL-G         Quit: use to avoid answering a question.
      ESC ;          Inserts comment (for writing C programs).
      ESC I          Inserts indentation equal to previous line.
      ESC M          Move to end of this line's indentation.
      CTRL-_         Describe a command  (if  the  command  database  is

      CTRL-C         Not used.
      CTRL-Z         Not used.
      CTRL-]         Not used.

ELLE profile

     It is possible to create your own user profile.  The  mechanism  is
different  from  Emacs,  since ELLE does not have Mock Lisp.  Proceed as

   Modify .ellepro.e to suit your taste.

   Install .ellepro.e in your home directory.


           ellec -Profile

   Check to see if .ellepro.b1 has been created.  If it has, you  are
   ready to go.


     ELLE was written by Ken Harrenstien of SRI (klh@sri.com).