installboot - make a device bootable

     installboot -i(mage) image [label:]kernel mm fs ... init
     installboot -(e)x(tract) image
     installboot -d(evice) device bootblock boot [[label:]image ...]
     installboot -b(oot) device bootblock boot [label:]image ...
     installboot -m(aster) device masterboot [keys [logical]]

     Installboot may be used to make  a  device  bootable  by  constructing  a
     kernel image and installing bootstrap code into the boot block of a Minix
     file system.  To understand how this can be done one first  has  to  know
     what happens when a PC is booted.

     When the power is turned on the typical PC will try  to  read  the  first
     sector from the first floppy disk or from the first hard disk into memory
     and execute it.  The code obtained from the hard disk (from the so-called
     master  boot sector) will immediately replace itself by the code found in
     the first sector of the active partition.  Thus the PC is  now  executing
     the  bootstrap  code  found in the first sector of /dev/fd0, /dev/c0d0p0,
     /dev/c0d0p1, /dev/c0d0p2, or  /dev/c0d0p3  (assuming  the  boot  disk  is
     attached  to  controller  0.)   The  bootstrap  will locate the operating
     system on the device it itself was loaded from, load it, and execute it.

     To make a Minix file system /dev/fd0 mounted on /mnt bootable, enter  the

          cp /usr/mdec/boot /mnt/boot

          installboot -i /mnt/minix kernel mm fs init

          installboot -d /dev/fd0 /usr/mdec/bootblock boot

     The "boot" program in the example is named the  "Boot  Monitor".   It  is
     loaded by the bootblock code placed in the boot sector of /dev/fd0 and it
     will take care  of  loading  the  kernel  image  "minix"  from  the  root
     directory  of  the  file system.  See monitor(8) for a description of the
     Boot Monitor.  Note that boot is a name in the file system on /dev/fd0 in
     this  example, the same file as /mnt/boot.  Making /mnt/minix is normally
     not necessary, there is usually a kernel image in the tools directory.

     -i(mage) image [label:]kernel mm fs ... init
          The -image option (or the  -i  shorthand)  combines  the  executable
          files  needed  to  run  Minix in one file.  Only the names and a few
          zero  bytes  are  inserted  into  the  image.   The  name   is   for
          identification  and  the  zeros  are  used to pad separate pieces to
          sector boundaries for fast loading.
          An executable may be prefixed  by  a  label.   The  Monitor  may  be
          instructed  to  load  processes  by  label.  So more than one kernel
          process may  be  included  in  the  image,  each  with  a  different
          winchester  driver  for  instance.   So  if  you  have  compiled two
          different kernels with an AT or XT driver then

               installboot -i image AT:at_kernel XT:xt_kernel mm fs init

          will make an image  with  two  different  labeled  kernels  and  one
          unlabeled set of the other binaries.

     -(e)x(tract) image
          Extract the binaries from image under the names stored in the image.
          (The name includes the optional label.)

     -d(evice) device bootblock boot [[label:]image ...]
          Installs bootblock in the boot sector of device  together  with  the
          disk  addresses  to  boot.   These disk addresses are needed to load
          boot from the file system at boot time.  The argument boot is  first
          searched  in  the file system on device.  If it is not found then it
          is read as a normal file and added at the end of  the  file  system.
          The  file system should be smaller than the device it is on to allow
          this.  Any extra images are also added to the end as described under
          -boot.  (Make sure you understand all this.)

          The device need not be mounted when installboot is run, nor does  it
          matter if it is.

          Installboot needs to be run again if boot is rewritten,  because  it
          will then occupy a new place on the disk.

          Old boot parameters are kept if there are no images added.

     -b(oot) device bootblock boot [label:]image ...
          This option fills a blank floppy in device with boot code and kernel
          images.  This "boot disk" does not have a root file system, only the
          Boot Monitor and Minix  kernels.   The  boot  parameters  sector  is
          filled  with  code that enables menu options for selecting an image.
          After loading an image, the Monitor will ask you to  insert  a  root
          file system diskette before starting Minix.

          The labels used on the images should match those on the  executables
          used inside the image.  You can put a comma separated list of labels
          on an image for each label used within the  image.   For  the  image
          created earlier one would create a boot floppy like this:

               installboot -b /dev/fd0 bootblock boot AT,XT:image

          If a label-list is omitted on an image,  then  that  image  will  be
          selected  by  default.   (Like  in  the  normal one image, no labels

          Note that -device and -boot together allow you to make a boot floppy
          with  or without a root file system.  With the boot code in the file
          system, attached to the end of it, or after  the  boot  block.   And
          with  one  or more kernel images in the file system or at the end of
          the device.  Somewhat confusing.

     -m(aster) device masterboot [keys [logical]]
          This option installs the masterboot program into the boot sector  of
          the  given device.  If another device is given instead of masterboot
          then its bootstrap code is copied to device.  The  master  bootstrap
          on a hard disk boots the active partition on that disk at boot time.
          The MS-DOS fdisk command normally puts a  master  bootstrap  on  the
          hard  disk.   Minix  has two bootstraps that can be used as a master
          bootstrap, masterboot and jumpboot.

          Masterboot is  a  fairly  normal  master  bootstrap  that  works  as

               If installed on a hard disk then it will load the bootstrap  of
               the  active partition and run it.  Masterboot can be put in the
               first sector of a hard disk to boot the active partition, or in
               the  first  sector  of  a  Minix  partition  to boot the active

               If installed on a Minix floppy then it will  try  to  boot  the
               next  floppy  or  the first hard disk.  Ideal for floppies with
               just data on it, they will no longer obstruct the boot  process
               if  left  in  the drive.  Also a very useful trick to boot from
               floppy drive 1.

          The other bootstrap named jumpboot is used for the weird cases:

               If your default operating system is installed on  another  disk
               then jumpboot can be installed on the first disk and instructed
               to boot the disk, partition or subpartition that must be booted
               by default.

               If one of your operating systems insists on being  active  when
               booted  then  use  jumpboot  to ignore the active flag and boot
               your preferred O.S. instead.  The Boot Monitor's "boot *" trick
               to activate the partition to boot is useful here.

               To boot a logical partition within an extended partition.  Note
               that  you  can put jumpboot in the first sector of the extended
               partition in this case,  with  the  extended  partition  marked

               If you hold down the ALT key while jumpboot is being  executed,
               then you can type the disk, partition or subpartition you  want
               to boot as one to three digits followed by typing ENTER.

          Jumpboot can be programmed to boot a certain partition with the keys
          argument  and optionally also the logical argument.  Keys are one to
          three digits naming the disk, partition  or  subpartition.   If  the
          device  to  boot  is /dev/c0d1p3s0, then keys is 130.  These are the
          same three digits you can type manually if  you  hold  down  ALT  at
          boot.   To  program  jumpboot  to boot a logical partition within an
          extended partition, let keys be just  a  disk  number,  and  specify
          logical as the name of the logical partition on that disk that is to
          be booted.  (Actually logical can be any device name, but this  form
          should  be  avoided  because  it  offers less checking to see if the
          device is still there after a disk rearrangement.)

          A backup  copy  of  the  current  master  bootstrap  (including  the
          partition table) can be made with:

               dd if=device of=backup-file count=1

          A simple 'cp backup-file device' will put it back.  You can also use
          fdisk  /mbr  under  MS-DOS  5.0  (or  newer)  to  restore the master


     /usr/mdec/bootblock      Minix bootstrap for the Minix root  device.   To
                              be placed in the boot sector.

     /usr/mdec/boot           Minix Boot Monitor.  Can usually be found in the
                              root directory of a bootable device.

     /usr/mdec/masterboot     Master bootstrap.  Can be placed  in  the  first
                              sector of a disk to select the active partition.
                              In a Minix  primary  partition  it  selects  the
                              active subpartition.

     /usr/mdec/jumpboot       Special "boot this" bootstrap.

     part(8), monitor(8).

     File is not an executable
          What you think is boot code or part of the kernel isn't.

     Program will crash, text/data segment larger then 64K
          One of the 16-bit programs added to an image  has  a  text  or  data
          segment  that  is  larger  than  64K.  You probably enabled too many
          drivers, or configured too many buffers.

     File can't be attached to device
          You are trying to put the boot monitor or  an  image  after  a  file
          system,  but  there  is no or not enough space.  Did you specify the
          full path of the monitor instead of just "boot"?

     Device is not a Minix file system
          You are using -device on  a  device  that  doesn't  contain  a  file
          system.  Maybe you specified the wrong device, maybe you should make
          a file system, or maybe you should use -boot.

     Device contains a file system
          You are about to destroy a file system with -boot.  Maybe you  meant
          to use -device?  You have 10 seconds to make up your mind...

     File is too big
          Several types of messages like these will tell you that  file  can't
          be  installed in a boot sector, or that there is no room to add some
          parameters, etc.  Is file really a bootstrap?

  Bootstrap errors
     Read error
          A read error trying to get the next bit of boot code.  You may  even
          get  the BIOS error code in hex.  Either the device has a bad block,
          or jumpboot is told to read a nonexistent disk.

     No active partition
          None of the partitions in a partition table is marked active.

     Not bootable
          Partition  does  not  exist  (jumpboot),  or  it's  bootstrap  isn't

     The Minix bootstraps can boot beyond the 8G disk size limit if  the  BIOS
     supports  the IBM/MS INT 13 Extensions.  Alas only Minix-vmd can make use
     of this, standard Minix has a 4G disk size limit.

     It has four more options than the SunOS installboot program it is modeled

     The bootblock code has been crunched to such ugliness that you can use it
     to scare little kids out of your garden.

     Kees J. Bot (