ip, eth, psip, udp, tcp - Internet Protocol server devices and
The ip*, eth*, psip*, tcp*, and udp* devices give access to the Internet
Protocol (IP) services in Minix. There can be up to 16 different
networks, with 4 network devices each (a network has either an eth* or a
psip* device, not both.) The * in the device names is a decimal number,
so one may see names from ip0 to ip15. A program scanning all networks
must try all 16, and not stop if one in between is missing. One network
is the default network. Its devices are linked to names without numbers.
The eth* and psip* devices give direct access to the network packets at
the lowest level. The ip*, tcp*, and udp* devices give access to IP,
TCP, or UDP services.
Most programs that use TCP/IP use code like the following to access the
if ((tcp_device= getenv("TCP_DEVICE")) == NULL)
The low level networking programs such as ifconfig(8) also have options
to select the device they are working with. The convention is:
Device to use as raw ethernet device instead of the default
Pseudo IP device to use instead of /dev/psip.
IP device to use instead of /dev/ip.
TCP device to use instead of /dev/tcp.
UDP device to use instead of /dev/udp.
Access to the IP services is provided using filedescriptors to open IP
devices. These open IP channels can be configured with ioctl(2) calls,
and data can be transferred by calls to read(2), and write(2).
Defines u8_t, u16_t, u32_t and i32_t (and U8_t, U16_t, U32_t and
I32_t for use in prototypes).
Defines struct ether_addr (ether_addr_t) and ether_type_t and
Ether_type_t for use in prototypes.
Defines struct nwio_ethopt (nwio_ethopt_t) and struct nwio_ethstat
Defines struct eth_hdr (eth_hdr_t)
[[[No description available yet.]]]
[[[No description available yet.]]]
Defines ipaddr_t, ipproto_t and struct ip_hdropt (ip_hdropt_t).
Defines struct nwio_ipconf (nwio_ipconf_t) and struct nwio_ipopt
Defines struct ip_hdr (ip_hdr_t)
Defines struct nwio_route (nwio_route_t)
Defines tcpport_t and Tcpport_t for use in prototypes.
Defines struct nwio_tcpconf (nwio_tcpconf_t), struct nwio_tcpcl
(nwio_tcpcl_t), struct nwio_tcpatt (nwio_tcpatt_t) and struct
Defines struct tcp_hdr (tcp_hdr_t) and struct tcp_hdropt
Defines udpport_t and Udpport_t for use in prototypes.
Defines struct nwio_udpopt (nwio_udpopt_t).
Defines struct udp_hdr (udp_hdr_t) and struct udp_io_hdr
Byte Order Conversion
All 16-bit and 32-bit quantities in IP headers must be in network byte
order. The macros described in hton(3) can be used to convert these
values to and from the byte order used by the host machine.
The Internet Checksum
The oneC_sum function (see oneC_sum(3)) is used to calculate the one's
complement checksum needed for IP network packets.
fd = open(tcpip_device, O_RDWR)
This is how one normally obtains a filedescriptor for a new TCP/IP
channel. tcpip_device names one of the TCP/IP devices. The channel may
be used both to send or to receive data.
n = read(fd, buf, size)
Receives one packet (low level devices) or a number of bytes (TCP
stream). Returns the the number of bytes placed into buf, or returns -1
with an error code placed into errno.
n = write(fd, buf, size)
Sends one packet (low level devices) or a number of bytes (TCP stream).
Returns size or -1 with the error code placed into errno. The TCP/IP
read and write functions behave like reads and writes on pipes when it
comes to signals.
ioctl(fd, NWIOGETHSTAT, &struct nwio_ethstat)
The NWIOGETHSTAT ioctl returns the Ethernet address and some statistics
of the Ethernet server of the channel fd. The result is returned in the
nwio_ethstat structure. The struct nwio_ethstat is defined in
typedef struct nwio_ethstat
typedef struct eth_stat
unsigned long ets_recvErr, /* # receive errors */
ets_sendErr, /* # send error */
ets_OVW, /* # buffer overwrite warnings,
(packets arrive faster than
can be processed) */
ets_CRCerr, /* # crc errors of read */
ets_frameAll, /* # frames not aligned (# bits
not a multiple of 8) */
ets_missedP, /* # packets missed due to too
slow packet processing */
ets_packetR, /* # packets received */
ets_packetT, /* # packets transmitted */
ets_transDef, /* # transmission deferred (there
was a transmission of an
other station in progress */
ets_collision, /* # collisions */
ets_transAb, /* # transmissions aborted due
to excessive collisions */
ets_carrSense, /* # carrier sense lost */
ets_fifoUnder, /* # fifo underruns (processor
is too busy) */
ets_fifoOver, /* # fifo overruns (processor is
too busy) */
ets_CDheartbeat, /* # times unable to transmit
collision signal */
ets_OWC; /* # times out of window
ioctl(fd, NWIOSETHOPT, &struct nwio_ethopt)
Before an Ethernet channel can be used to send or receive Ethernet
packets, it has to be configured using the NWIOSETHOPT ioctl. The
structure nwio_ethopt is defined in <net/gen/eth_io.h>:
typedef struct nwio_ethopt
ether_addr_t nweo_multi, nweo_rem;
#define NWEO_NOFLAGS 0x0000L
#define NWEO_ACC_MASK 0x0003L
# define NWEO_EXCL 0x00000001L
# define NWEO_SHARED 0x00000002L
# define NWEO_COPY 0x00000003L
#define NWEO_LOC_MASK 0x0010L
# define NWEO_EN_LOC 0x00000010L
# define NWEO_DI_LOC 0x00100000L
#define NWEO_BROAD_MASK 0x0020L
# define NWEO_EN_BROAD 0x00000020L
# define NWEO_DI_BROAD 0x00200000L
#define NWEO_MULTI_MASK 0x0040L
# define NWEO_EN_MULTI 0x00000040L
# define NWEO_DI_MULTI 0x00400000L
#define NWEO_PROMISC_MASK 0x0080L
# define NWEO_EN_PROMISC 0x00000080L
# define NWEO_DI_PROMISC 0x00800000L
#define NWEO_REM_MASK 0x0100L
# define NWEO_REMSPEC 0x00000100L
# define NWEO_REMANY 0x01000000L
#define NWEO_TYPE_MASK 0x0200L
# define NWEO_TYPESPEC 0x00000200L
# define NWEO_TYPEANY 0x02000000L
#define NWEO_RW_MASK 0x1000L
# define NWEO_RWDATONLY 0x00001000L
# define NWEO_RWDATALL 0x10000000L
The configuration is divided in a number of section (covered by the
xx_MASK macros). Options can be set in the nweo_flags field. The first
section (NWEO_ACC_MASK) controls the access to a certain Ethernet packet
type. If NWEO_EXCL is selected then this is the only channel that can
send or receive Ethernet packets of the selected type. If NWEO_SHARED is
selected then multiple channels (which all have to select NWEO_SHARED)
can use the same Ethernet type, they all can send packets but incoming
packets will be delivered to at most one of them. If NWEO_COPY is
selected then multiple channels have access to the same Ethernet type and
all receive a copy of an incoming packet.
The NWEO_LOC_MASK flags control the delivery of packets with a
destination address equal to the Ethernet address of the machine. If
NWEO_EN_LOC is selected then these packets will be delivered and with
NWEO_DI_LOC they will be discarded.
NWEO_BROAD_MASK, NWEO_MULTI_MASK, and NWEO_PROMISC_MASK do the same to
broadcast packets, multicast packets and promiscuous mode packets as
NWEO_LOC_MASK does for local packets. Except that the precise multicast
address is taken from the nweo_multi field.
The NWEO_REM_MASK flags control whether communication is restricted to
single destination or not. NWEO_REMSPEC restricts sending and receiving
of packets to the single remote computer specified in the nweo_rem field.
NWEO_REMANY allows sending to and receiving from any remote computer.
NWEO_TYPESPEC restricts sending and receiving of packets to the type
specified in nweo_type. The type has to be in network byte order (using
hton(3)). NWEO_TYPEANY allows any type.
If the Ethernet header is completely specified by the nweo_flags i.e.,
all of NWEO_EN_LOC, NWEO_DI_BROAD, NWEO_DI_MULTI, NWEO_DI_PROMISC,
NWEO_REMSPEC and NWEO_TYPESPEC are specified, then NWEO_RWDATONLY can be
used to send and receive only the data part of an Ethernet packet. If
NWEO_RWDATALL is specified then both Ethernet header and data are used.
[[[No description available yet.]]]
ioctl(fd, NWIOGIPCONF, &struct nwio_ipconf)
The NWIOGIPCONF ioctl reports the Internet Address and the netmask. For
the nwio_ipconf structure see the NWIOSIPCONF ioctl below.
ioctl(fd, NWIOGIPOROUTE, &struct nwio_route)
The NWIOGIPOROUTE ioctl can be used to query an IP server about its
routing table. [[[NWIODIPOROUTE, NWIOGIPIROUTE, NWIODIPIROUTE?]]] The
structure nwio_route is defined in <net/gen/route.h>:
typedef struct nwio_route
#define NWRF_EMPTY 0
#define NWRF_INUSE 1
#define NWRF_FIXED 2
The requested entry is taken from nwr_ent_no. Entries are counted from
0, so the value 0 can be used for an initial query. The size of the
routing table is returned in nwr_ent_count. The nwr_flags indicates if
the entry is in use (NWRF_INUSE) and if the entry was inserted manually
(using NWIOSIPOROUTE) or generated by the IP server itself. The route is
described by nwr_dest, nwr_netmask, nwr_gateway, nwr_dist, and nwr_pref.
Nwr_dest and nwr_netmask select the destination addresses. A value of
0.0.0.0 (0x0) in both nwr_dest and nwr_netmask means every host. A value
of 255.255.255.255 (0xffffffff) in nwr_netmask means a single host.
Other values of nwr_netmask are netmasks for the network specified by
nwr_dest. Nwr_gateway is gateway that should be used. Nwr_dist is a
minimal distance. Packets with a time to live smaller than nwr_dist will
not reach the destination. If two routes have equal netmask and distance
fields but different gateways then the gateway with highest value in
nwr_pref is used.
ioctl(fd, NWIOSIPCONF, &struct nwio_ipconf)
The NWIOSIPCONF ioctl can be used to inform the IP server about its
Internet Address and/or its netmask. Normally an IP server will discover
its Internet Address using the RARP protocol. NWIOSIPCONF can be used in
the case that the RARP failed, or the netmask has to be changed. Note
that higher level protocols (TCP and UDP) assume that the Internet
Address of an IP device does not change, therefore TCP and UDP stop
functioning if the Internet Address is changed.
The structure nwio_ipconf is defined in <net/gen/ip_io.h>:
typedef struct nwio_ipconf
#define NWIC_NOFLAGS 0x0
#define NWIC_FLAGS 0x3
# define NWIC_IPADDR_SET 0x1
# define NWIC_NETMASK_SET 0x2
The function of nwio_ipconf depends on the value of nwic_flags. If
NWIC_IPADDR_SET is set then the Internet Address will be set to
nwic_ipaddr. If NWIC_NETMASK_SET is set then the Internet Address will
be set to nwic_netmask.
ioctl(fd, NWIOSIPOPT, &struct nwio_ipopt)
Before an IP channel can be used, it has to be configured using the
NWIOSIPOPT ioctl. The structure nwio_ipopt is defined in
typedef struct nwio_ipopt
#define NWIO_NOFLAGS 0x0000L
#define NWIO_ACC_MASK 0x0003L
# define NWIO_EXCL 0x00000001L
# define NWIO_SHARED 0x00000002L
# define NWIO_COPY 0x00000003L
#define NWIO_LOC_MASK 0x0010L
# define NWIO_EN_LOC 0x00000010L
# define NWIO_DI_LOC 0x00100000L
#define NWIO_BROAD_MASK 0x0020L
# define NWIO_EN_BROAD 0x00000020L
# define NWIO_DI_BROAD 0x00200000L
#define NWIO_REM_MASK 0x0100L
# define NWIO_REMSPEC 0x00000100L
# define NWIO_REMANY 0x01000000L
#define NWIO_PROTO_MASK 0x0200L
# define NWIO_PROTOSPEC 0x00000200L
# define NWIO_PROTOANY 0x02000000L
#define NWIO_HDR_O_MASK 0x0400L
# define NWIO_HDR_O_SPEC 0x00000400L
# define NWIO_HDR_O_ANY 0x04000000L
#define NWIO_RW_MASK 0x1000L
# define NWIO_RWDATONLY 0x00001000L
# define NWIO_RWDATALL 0x10000000L
The options are divided in several categories: NWIO_ACC_MASK,
NWIO_LOC_MASK, NWIO_BROAD_MASK, NWIO_REM_MASK, NWIO_PROTO_MASK,
NWIO_HDR_O_MASK and NWIO_RW_MASK. A channel is configured when one
option of each category is set.
The options covered by NWIO_ACC_MASK control the number of channels that
can use one IP protocol. If NWIO_EXCL is specified then only that
channel can use a certain IP protocol. If NWIO_SHARED then multiple
channels that all have to specify NWIO_SHARED can use the same IP
protocol, but incoming packets will be delivered to a most one channel.
NWIO_COPY does not impose any restrictions. Every channel gets a copy of
an incoming packet.
NWIO_LOC_MASK and NWIO_BROAD_MASK control the delivery of packets. If
NWIO_EN_LOC is specified then packets that are explicitly send to the IP
server are delivered. If NWIO_EN_BROAD is specified then broadcast
packets are delivered. Either one or both of them can be disabled with
NWIO_DI_LOC and NWIO_DI_BROAD.
NWIO_REMSPEC can be used to restrict communication to one remote host.
This host is taken from the nwio_rem field. If any remote host is to be
allowed then NWIO_REMANY can be used.
NWIO_PROTOSPEC restricts communication to one IP protocol, specified in
nwio_proto. NWIO_PROTOANY allows any protocol to be sent or received.
NWIO_HDR_O_SPEC specifies all IP header options in advance. The values
are taken from nwio_hdropt, nwio_tos, nwio_ttl, and nwio_df. Nwio_hdropt
specifies the IP options that should be present in an outgoing packet.
Ip_hdropt_t is defined in <net/gen/in.h>:
typedef struct ip_hdropt
The bytes of size iho_opt_siz in iho_data are appended to the IP header.
Nwio_tos specifies the value of the ``type of service'' bits, nwio_ttl
gives the value of the ``time to live'' field and nwio_df specifies
whether fragmentation is disallowed or not. NWIO_HDR_O_ANY specifies
that the header options should be specified at each write request.
NWIO_RWDATONLY specifies that the header should be omitted from a write
request. This option can only be used when all header fields are
specified in previous options: NWIO_EN_LOC, NWIO_DI_BROAD, NWIO_REMSPEC,
NWIO_PROTOSPEC and NWIO_HDR_O_SPEC. A read operation will also only
return the data part, so the IP options will be lost.
ioctl(fd, NWIOSIPOROUTE, &struct nwio_route)
The NWIOSIPOROUTE ioctl adds a route to the routing table. See
NWIOGIPOROUTE above for a description of the nwio_route structure. The
fields nwr_ent_no and nwr_ent_count are ignored.
ioctl(fd, NWIOTCPCONN, &struct nwio_tcpcl)
The NWIOTCPCONN ioctl tries to setup a connection with a remote TCP/IP
server. The channel must be fully configured (see NWIOSTCPCONF) and
values for the local port, the remote port and the remote address have be
specified using NWTC_LP_SET or NWTC_LP_SEL, NWTC_SET_RA and NWTC_SET_RP.
The struct nwio_tcpcl is defined in <net/gen/tcp_io.h> as:
typedef struct nwio_tcpcl
Set the nwtcl_flags field to zero before the connect or listen call.
[[[Further explanation of nwio_tcpcl?]]]
ioctl(fd, NWIOGTCPCONF, &struct nwio_tcpconf)
This call reports the current configuration of a TCP channel. The
nwtc_flags field shows the status of the access, locport, remaddr and
remport fields. Nwtc_locaddr contains the Internet address of the TCP/IP
server. Remaddr contains the Internet address of the remote TCP/IP
server when set with NWTC_SET_RA or after a successful connect or listen
(see NWIOTCPCONN or NWIOTCPLISTEN). Nwio_locport contains the local
TCP/IP port set with NWTC_LP_SET or the selected port set with
NWTC_LP_SEL. Nwtc_remport contains the TCP port of the remote TCP/IP
server as set with NWIO_SET_RP or after a successful connect or listen.
A value of 0 (zero) is reported for nwtc_remaddr, nwtc_locport or
nwtc_remport when no value is set either explicitly or implicitly.
ioctl(fd, NWIOTCPLISTEN, &struct nwio_tcpcl)
The NWIOTCPLISTEN ioctl waits until a remote TCP/IP server tries to
connect to this channel. The channel has to be configured (see
NWIOSTCPCONF). An additional restriction is that the local port must be
set (with NWTC_LP_SET) or selected (with NWTC_LP_SEL). When a remote
address is set only connections for that host are accepted, and when a
remote port is set only connections from that port are accepted. After a
successful listen NWIOGTCPCONF can be used to find out what the address
and port of the other side are.
ioctl(fd, NWIOSTCPCONF, &struct nwio_tcpconf)
Before a TCP channel can be used it must configured using the
NWIOSTCPCONF ioctl. The parameters to NWIOSTCPCONF are the channel file
descriptor and a struct nwio_tcpconf as defined in <net/gen/tcp_io.h>:
typedef struct nwio_tcpconf
#define NWTC_NOFLAGS 0x0000L
#define NWTC_ACC_MASK 0x0003L
# define NWTC_EXCL 0x00000001L
# define NWTC_SHARED 0x00000002L
# define NWTC_COPY 0x00000003L
#define NWTC_LOCPORT_MASK 0x0030L
# define NWTC_LP_UNSET 0x00000010L
# define NWTC_LP_SET 0x00000020L
# define NWTC_LP_SEL 0x00000030L
#define NWTC_REMADDR_MASK 0x0100L
# define NWTC_SET_RA 0x00000100L
# define NWTC_UNSET_RA 0x01000000L
#define NWTC_REMPORT_MASK 0x0200L
# define NWTC_SET_RP 0x00000200L
# define NWTC_UNSET_RP 0x02000000L
A tcp channel is considered configured when one flag in each category has
been selected. Thus one of NWTC_EXCL, NWTC_SHARED or NWTC_COPY, one of
NWTC_LP_UNSET, NWTC_LP_SET or NWTC_LP_SEL, one of NWTC_SET_RA or
NWTC_UNSET_RA, and one of NWTC_SET_RP or NWTC_UNSET_RP.
The acc flags control the access to a certain TCP port. NWTC_EXCL means
exclusive access. An attempt to configure a channel will be denied if
the same port is specified as that of a channel that requested exclusive
access. NWTC_SHARED indicates that several channels use the same port
but cooperate. If the shared mode is specified for one channel than all
other channel that use the same port should also be configured with the
NWTC_SHARED flag. NWTC_COPY is specified when the programmer does not
care about other channels. This is the default.
The locport flags control which TCP port is used for communication.
NWTC_LP_UNSET indicates the absence of a local port. This is the
default. NWTC_LP_SET means that the nwtc_locport field contains the
local port to be used by TCP. This value must be in network byte order
(see hton(3).) NWTC_LP_SEL requests the TCP server to pick a port. This
port will be in the range from 32768 to 65535 and will be unique.
The remaddr flags specify which hosts are acceptable for connections.
NWTC_SET_RA indicates that only connection to the host specified in
nwtc_remaddr are acceptable. Nwtc_remaddr should be in network byte
order (see hton(3).) NWTC_UNSET_RA allows every host on the other side
of a connection. This is the default.
The remport flags specify which remote ports are acceptable for
connections. NWTC_SET_RP indicates that only the port specified in
nwtc_remport is acceptable. NWTC_UNSET_RP allows every port on the other
side of a connection. This is the default.
The NWIOTCPSHUTDOWN tells the TCP/IP server that no more data will be
sent over the channel specified by fd. This command can be issued when
the channel is connected to a remote TCP/IP server. The TCP/IP server
will tell the remote TCP/IP server and the client of the remote TCP/IP
server will receive an end-of-file indication.
ioctl(fd, NWIOGTCPOPT, &struct nwio_tcpopt)
ioctl(fd, NWIOSTCPOPT, &struct nwio_tcpopt)
The behaviour of a TCP channel may be changed by setting a number of
options. The TCP options can be obtained with the NWIOGTCPOPT ioctl and
set with the NWIOSTCPOPT ioctl. The options are passed in a struct
nwio_tcpopt as defined in <net/gen/tcp_io.h>:
typedef struct nwio_tcpopt
#define NWTO_NOFLAG 0x0000L
#define NWTO_SND_URG_MASK 0x0001L
# define NWTO_SND_URG 0x00000001L
# define NWTO_SND_NOTURG 0x00010000L
#define NWTO_RCV_URG_MASK 0x0002L
# define NWTO_RCV_URG 0x00000002L
# define NWTO_RCV_NOTURG 0x00020000L
#define NWTO_BSD_URG_MASK 0x0004L
# define NWTO_BSD_URG 0x00000004L
#define NWTO_DEL_RST_MASK 0x0008L
# define NWTO_DEL_RST 0x00000008L
The NWTO_SND_URG option causes bytes written to the channel to be send
out as urgent data. On receiving an EURG error the NWTO_RCV_URG option
must be set to switch over to reading urgent data. When all urgent data
has been read an ENOURG error will follow, indicating that the option
must be cleared with NWTO_RCV_NOTURG. Alas the BSD implementation of
urgent data disagrees with the RFC's, so to be BSD compatible one must
set the NWTO_BSD_URG option beforehand on a channel that is to send or
receive urgent data. Given that the BSD implementation is the regarded
as the TCP/IP standard one should always use the BSD style. The
NWTO_DEL_RST option delays a failure response on a connect to the same
port as the current open connection. Without this option a connect would
fail if a server is not yet listening. With this option a connect will
linger on until the server starts listening. This option is useful for a
server that opens a connection, tells the remote end the local port
number and then listens (FTP), or for a program that forks off servers
for incoming connections (TELNET). A new connection may come in before a
new listen can be started, so it is nice if the new connect doesn't fail.
Use this option only when it is clearly needed.
ioctl(fd, NWIOGUDPOPT, &struct nwio_udpopt)
The NWIOGUDPOPT ioctl returns the current options that result from the
default options and the options set with NWIOSUDPOPT. When NWUO_LP_SEL
or NWUO_LP_SET is selected the local port is returned in nwuo_locport.
When NWUO_RP_SET is selected the remote port is returned in nwuo_remport.
The local address is always returned in nwuo_locaddr, and when
NWUO_RA_SET is selected the remote address is returned in nwuo_remaddr.
ioctl(fd, NWIOSUDPOPT, &struct nwio_udpopt)
A UDP channel must be configured using the NWIOSUDPOPT ioctl before any
data can be read or written. NWIOSUDPOPT takes two parameters, a file
descriptor to an open UDP device and pointer to a nwio_udpopt structure
that describes the requested configuration. The nwio_udpopt structure is
defined in <net/gen/udp_io.h> as:
typedef struct nwio_udpopt
unsigned long nwuo_flags;
#define NWUO_NOFLAGS 0x0000L
#define NWUO_ACC_MASK 0x0003L
#define NWUO_EXCL 0x00000001L
#define NWUO_SHARED 0x00000002L
#define NWUO_COPY 0x00000003L
#define NWUO_LOCPORT_MASK 0x000CL
#define NWUO_LP_SEL 0x00000004L
#define NWUO_LP_SET 0x00000008L
#define NWUO_LP_ANY 0x0000000CL
#define NWUO_LOCADDR_MASK 0x0010L
#define NWUO_EN_LOC 0x00000010L
#define NWUO_DI_LOC 0x00100000L
#define NWUO_BROAD_MASK 0x0020L
#define NWUO_EN_BROAD 0x00000020L
#define NWUO_DI_BROAD 0x00200000L
#define NWUO_REMPORT_MASK 0x0100L
#define NWUO_RP_SET 0x00000100L
#define NWUO_RP_ANY 0x01000000L
#define NWUO_REMADDR_MASK 0x0200L
#define NWUO_RA_SET 0x00000200L
#define NWUO_RA_ANY 0x02000000L
#define NWUO_RW_MASK 0x1000L
#define NWUO_RWDATONLY 0x00001000L
#define NWUO_RWDATALL 0x10000000L
#define NWUO_IPOPT_MASK 0x2000L
#define NWUO_EN_IPOPT 0x00002000L
#define NWUO_DI_IPOPT 0x20000000L
A UDP channel is considered configured when one flag in each category has
been selected. Thus one of NWUO_EXCL, NWUO_SHARED or NWUO_COPY, one of
NWUO_LP_SEL, NWUO_LP_SET or NWUO_LP_ANY, one of NWUO_EN_LOC or
NWUO_DI_LOC, one of NWUO_EN_BROAD, or NWUO_DI_BROAD, one of NWUO_RP_SET,
or NWUO_RP_ANY, one of NWUO_RA_SET, or NWUO_RA_ANY, one of
NWUO_RWDATONLY, or NWUO_RWDATALL, and one of NWUO_EN_IPOPT, or
NWUO_DI_IPOPT. The acc flags control the access to a certain UDP port.
NWUO_EXCL means exclusive access: no other channel can use this port.
NWUO_SHARED means shared access: only channels that specify shared
access can use this port and all packets that are received are handed to
at most one channel. NWUO_COPY imposes no access restriction and all
channels get a copy of every received packet for that port.
The locport flags control the selection of the UDP port for this channel.
NWUO_LP_SEL requests the server to pick a port. This port will be in the
range from 32768 to 65535 and it will be unique. NWUO_LP_SET sets the
local port to the value of the nwuo_locport field. NWUO_LP_ANY does not
select a port. Reception of data is therefore not possible but it is
possible to send data.
The locaddr flags control the reception of packets. NWUO_EN_LOC enables
the reception of packets with the local IP address as destination.
NWUO_DI_LOC disables the reception of packet for the local IP address.
The broad flags control the reception of broadcast packets.
NWUO_EN_BROAD enables the reception of broadcast packets and
NWUO_DI_BROAD disables the reception of broadcast packets.
The remport flags let the client to specify one specific remote UDP port
or to allow any remote port. NWUO_RP_SET sets the remote UDP port to the
value of nwuo_remport. Only packets with a matching remote port will be
delivered and all packets will be sent to that port. NWUO_RP_ANY allows
reception of packets form any port and when transmitting packets the
remote port has to be specified.
The remaddr flags control the remote IP address. NWUO_RA_SET sets the
remote IP address the value of nwuo_remaddr. Only packets from that
address will be delivered and all packets will be sent to that address.
NWUO_RA_ANY allows reception of packets from any host and when
transmitting packets the remote host has to be specified.
The rw flags control the format of the data to be sent or received. With
NWUO_RWDATONLY only the data part of a UDP packet is sent to the server
and only the data part is received from the server. The NWUO_RWDATALL
mode presents the data part of a UDP packet with a header that contains
the source and destination IP address, source and destination UDP ports,
the IP options, etc. The server expects such a header in front of the
data to be transmitted.
The ipopt flags control the delivery and transmission of IP options.
When NWUO_EN_IPOPT is set IP, options will be delivered and sent. When
NWUO_DI_IPOPT is set IP option will be stripped from received packets and
no IP options will be sent.
/dev/eth* Raw ethernet. The numbers in the device names are decimal,
so one may see names from eth0 to eth15.
/dev/psip* First and second Pseudo IP network.
/dev/ip* IP devices for two ethernets and two Pseudo IP networks.
/dev/tcp* TCP devices for same four networks.
/dev/udp* UDP devices.
/dev/eth, /dev/psip, /dev/ip, /dev/tcp, /dev/udp
Devices for the default network, links to the devices above.
Eth is only present if ethernet is the default, psip only
for pseudo IP.
hton(3), oneC_sum(3), inet(8), boot(8).
Several errors may be returned by the TCP/IP server. The error code is
found in the errno variable if the read, write, or ioctl call returns -1.
The TCP/IP error codes defined in <errno.h> are:
EPACKSIZE This indicates an attempt to read or write with a
buffer that is too large or too small.
EOUTOFBUFS The TCP/IP server has insufficient memory to
execute the request.
EBADIOCTL This indicates an attempt to execute a command the
particular server does not understand. For
example, a NWIOGTCPCONF on an ETH channel.
EBADMODE The request is refused because the channel is not
fully configured, in the wrong state or the
parameters are invalid.
EBADDEST This indicates an illegal destination address for
EDSTNORCH The destination is not reachable.
EISCONN The channel is already connected so a second
request is refused.
EADDRINUSE This address is in use.
ECONNREFUSED The connection is refused by the other side.
ECONNRESET The connection is reset (non-gracefully
terminated) by the other side.
ETIMEDOUT The connection is terminated due to an expired
EURG Urgent data is present and the current receive
mode does not allow urgent data to be transferred.
ENOURG No urgent data is present and a request came for
ENOTCONN The request requires a connected channel and the
channel is not connected.
ESHUTDOWN The connection is shut down. That is, a
NWIOTCPSHUTDOWN has been executed so no more data
can be transmitted.
ENOCONN The connection does not exist.
EGENERIC A generic error code for extremely weird cases.
Philip Homburg (email@example.com)