printf,  fprintf,  sprintf,  snprintf,   vprintf,   vfprintf,   vsprintf,
     vsnprintf - formatted output conversion

     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <stdio.h>
     #include <stdarg.h>

     int printf(const char *format [, arg] ...);
     int fprintf(FILE *stream, const char *format [, arg] ...);
     int sprintf(char *s, const char *format [, arg] ...);
     int snprintf(char *s, size_t n, const char *format [, arg] ...);
     int vprintf(const char *format, va_list args);
     int vfprintf(FILE *stream, const char *format, va_list args);
     int vsprintf(char *s, const char *format, va_list args);
     int vsnprintf(char *s, size_t n, const char *format, va_list args);

     Printf places output on  the  standard  output  stream  stdout.   Fprintf
     places output on the named output stream.  Sprintf places `output' in the
     string s, followed by the character `\0'.  Snprintf (Minix-vmd  only)  is
     like  sprintf  except  that  no more than n-1 characters are written to s
     followed by a `\0'.

     The v*printf functions can be used to make functions like the first  four
     by using the stdarg(3) method to process the argument.

     Each of these functions converts, formats, and prints its arguments after
     the  first  under control of the first argument.  The first argument is a
     character string which contains two types of objects:  plain  characters,
     which   are   simply   copied   to  the  output  stream,  and  conversion
     specifications, each of which causes conversion and printing of the  next
     successive arg.

     Each conversion specification is introduced  by  the  character  %.   The
     remainder of the conversion specification includes in the following order

     o    Zero or more of following flags:

     o    a `#' character specifying that the value should be converted to  an
          ``alternate form''.  For c, d, s, and u conversions, this option has
          no effect.  For o  conversions,  the  precision  of  the  number  is
          increased  to  force  the  first character of the output string to a
          zero.  For x(X) conversion, a non-zero result has the string  0x(0X)
          prepended to it.  For e, E, f, g, and G conversions, the result will
          always contain a decimal point, even if no digits follow  the  point
          (normally,  a  decimal  point  only  appears in the results of those
          conversions if a digit follows the decimal  point).   For  g  and  G
          conversions,  trailing zeros are not removed from the result as they
          would otherwise be.

     o    a minus sign `-' which specifies left adjustment  of  the  converted
          value in the indicated field;

     o    a `+' character specifying that there should always be a sign placed
          before the number when using signed conversions.

     o    a space specifying that a blank should be  left  before  a  positive
          number  during a signed conversion.  A `+' overrides a space if both
          are used.

     o    an optional digit string specifying a field width; if the  converted
          value  has  fewer  characters than the field width it will be blank-
          padded on the left (or right, if the left-adjustment  indicator  has
          been  given)  to  make up the field width; if the field width begins
          with a zero, zero-padding will be done instead of blank-padding;

     o    an optional period `.'  which serves to  separate  the  field  width
          from the next digit string;

     o    an optional digit string specifying a precision which specifies  the
          number  of  digits  to appear after the decimal point, for e- and f-
          conversion, or the maximum number of characters to be printed from a

     o    the  character  l  specifying  that  a  following  d,  o,  x,  or  u
          corresponds to a long integer arg.

     o    a character which indicates the type of conversion to be applied.

     A field width or precision may be `*' instead of a digit string.  In this
     case an integer arg supplies the field width or precision.

     The conversion characters and their meanings are

     dox  The integer arg is  converted  to  decimal,  octal,  or  hexadecimal
          notation respectively.

     X    Like x, but use upper case instead of lower case.

     f    The float or double arg is converted  to  decimal  notation  in  the
          style  `[-]ddd.ddd'  where the number of d's after the decimal point
          is equal to the precision specification for the  argument.   If  the
          precision  is  missing,  6  digits  are  given;  if the precision is
          explicitly 0, no digits and no decimal point are printed.

     e    The float or double arg is converted  in  the  style  `[-]d.ddde+dd'
          where  there  is  one  digit before the decimal point and the number
          after is equal to the precision specification for the argument; when
          the precision is missing, 6 digits are produced.

     g    The float or double arg is printed in style d, in  style  f,  or  in
          style e, whichever gives full precision in minimum space.

     c    The character arg is printed.

     s    Arg is taken to be a string (character pointer) and characters  from
          the string are printed until a null character or until the number of
          characters indicated by  the  precision  specification  is  reached;
          however if the precision is 0 or missing all characters up to a null
          are printed.

     u    The unsigned integer arg is converted to decimal and printed.

     %    Print a `%'; no argument is converted.

     In no case does a non-existent or small field width cause truncation of a
     field;  padding takes place only if the specified field width exceeds the
     actual width.  Characters generated by printf are printed by putc(3).

     To print a date and time in the  form  `Sunday,  July  3,  10:02',  where
     weekday and month are pointers to null-terminated strings:

          printf("%s, %s %d, %02d:%02d", weekday, month, day, hour, min);

     To print pi to 5 decimals:

          printf("pi = %.5f", 4*atan(1.0));

     putc(3), scanf(3), ecvt(3), stdarg(3).