ls - list the contents of a directory

     ls [-acdfghilpqrstu1ACDFLMRTX] [name...]

     For each file argument, list it.  For each directory argument,  list  its
     contents.   The  current  working  directory  is listed when no files are
     named.  Information is printed multicolumn on terminals, single column if
     the  output is redirected.  The options control what information is shown
     and how.

     Ls has two sources other then the command line to draw options from,  one
     is  the  environment  variable  LSOPTS that is scanned for option letters
     when the output of ls is displayed on a terminal.  The other is the  name
     of  ls  itself.  If ls is linked to another name, then all the characters
     after the l are used as flags too, except that d,  f,  r,  t  and  x  are
     translated to D, F, R, T and X.  Useful links are ll, lf, lm and lx.

     Files whose names start with a dot are by default not listed.

     Note that standard Minix doesn't have symbolic links or  sockets  and  -u
     and  -c  are  no-ops  on  a V1 file system, since only modified times are
     stored in V1 inodes.


     -a   All entries are listed, even . and ..

     -c   Use inode changed time for sorting, listing or searching.

     -d   Do not list contents of directories, but list the directory itself.

     -f   Do not sort (should also be: treat a file as a directory,  but  that
          can't be implemented portably).

     -g   Suppress the owner name on a long listing (implies -l).

     -h   Show file sizes in kilo, mega or gigabytes.

     -i   I-node number printed in the first column.

     -l   Long listing: mode, links, owner, group, size  and  time.   (ls  -lC
          uses columns in a wide enough window!)

     -n   Print numerical user and group id's.

     -p   Mark directories with a '/'.

     -q   Print nongraphic characters as '?' (default on terminals).

     -r   Reverse the sort order.

     -s   Give the size in kilobytes in the first (-s) or second column (-is).

     -t   Sort by time (modified time default), latest first.

     -u   Use last accessed time for sorting, listing or searching.

     -1   Print in one column.

     -A   List all entries, but  not  .  and  ..  (This  is  the  default  for
          privileged users.)

     -C   Print multicolumn (default on terminals).

     -D   Distinguish files by type, i.e. regular files together,  directories
          together, etc.

     -F   Mark directories with a '/', executables with  a  '*',  UNIX  domain
          sockets with a '=', named pipes with a '|' and symbolic links with a
          '@' behind the name.

     -L   Print the file referenced by a symbolic link instead of the link.

     -M   List mode before name (implies -C).

     -R   List directory trees recursively.

     -T   Print file times in a long format, e.g. "Oct 24 21:37:41 1996".

     -X   Print crunched mode and size before name (implies -C).  Only the rwx
          permissions  that its caller has on the file are shown, but they are
          in upper case if  the  caller  owns  the  file  and  has  given  the
          permission  to the callers group or other users.  The size is listed
          in bytes (<= 5K), or rounded up kilo, mega or gigabytes.

     du(1), stat(1), stat(2).

     Having to type ls -C when viewing files through more(1).

     Is only portable to systems with the same st_mode (see stat(2)).

     The LSOPTS variable and the -D, -M and -X flags are not found on other ls
     implementations.  (They have their own nonstandard flags.)

     Kees J. Bot <>