ip,  eth,  psip,  udp,  tcp  -  Internet  Protocol  server  devices   and


     The ip*, eth*, psip*, tcp*, and udp* devices give access to the  Internet
     Protocol  (IP)  services  in  Minix.   There are 16 such devices for four
     different networks, and four different ways of accessing them.  The  eth*
     and psip* devices give direct access to the network packets at the lowest
     level.  The ip*, tcp*, and udp* devices give access to IP,  TCP,  or  UDP
     services.   See  set_net_default(8)  for  a  description  of  the default
     network devices and environment variables.  The proper TCP device to  use
     for instance is found by:

          if ((tcp_device= getenv("TCP_DEVICE")) == NULL)
                  tcp_device= "/dev/tcp";

     Access to the IP services is provided using filedescriptors  to  open  IP
     devices.   These  open IP channels can be configured with ioctl(2) calls,
     and data can be transferred by calls to read(2), and write(2).

  Types (general)

          defines u8_t, u16_t, u32_t and i32_t (and  U8_t,  U16_t,  U32_t  and
          I32_t for use in prototypes).

  Types (eth)

          defines  struct  ether_addr  (ether_addr_t)  and  ether_type_t   and
          Ether_type_t for use in prototypes.

          defines struct nwio_ethopt (nwio_ethopt_t) and  struct  nwio_ethstat

          defines struct eth_hdr (eth_hdr_t)

  Types (ip)

          defines ipaddr_t, ipproto_t and struct ip_hdropt (ip_hdropt_t).

          defines struct nwio_ipconf  (nwio_ipconf_t)  and  struct  nwio_ipopt

          defines struct ip_hdr (ip_hdr_t)

          defines struct nwio_route (nwio_route_t)

  Types (tcp)

          defines tcpport_t and Tcpport_t for use in prototypes.

          defines  struct  nwio_tcpconf  (nwio_tcpconf_t),  struct  nwio_tcpcl
          (nwio_tcpcl_t),   struct   nwio_tcpatt  (nwio_tcpatt_t)  and  struct
          nwio_tcpopt (nwio_tcpopt_t).

          defines   struct   tcp_hdr   (tcp_hdr_t)   and   struct   tcp_hdropt

  Types (udp)

          defines udpport_t and Udpport_t for use in prototypes.

          defines struct nwio_udpopt (nwio_udpopt_t).

          defines   struct   udp_hdr   (udp_hdr_t)   and   struct   udp_io_hdr

  Byte Order Conversion
     All 16-bit and 32-bit quantities in IP headers must be  in  network  byte
     order.   The  macros  described  in  hton(3) can be used to convert these
     values to and from the byte order used by the host machine.

  The Internet Checksum
     The OneC_sum function (see oneC_sum(3)) is used to  calculate  the  one's
     complement checksum needed for IP network packets.

  General Functions

     fd = open(tcpip_device, O_RDWR)

     This is how one normally  obtains  a  filedescriptor  for  a  new  TCP/IP
     channel.   tcpip_device names one of the TCP/IP devices.  The channel may
     be used both to send or to receive data.

     n = read(fd, buf, size)

     Receives one packet (low  level  devices)  or  a  number  of  bytes  (TCP
     stream).   Returns the the number of bytes placed into buf, or returns -1
     with an error code placed into errno.

     n = write(fd, buf, size)

     Sends one packet (low level devices) or a number of bytes  (TCP  stream).
     Returns  size  or  -1  with the error code placed into errno.  The TCP/IP
     read and write functions behave like reads and writes on  pipes  when  it
     comes to signals.

  ETH Functions

     ioctl(fd, NWIOGETHSTAT, &struct nwio_ethstat)

     The NWIOGETHSTAT ioctl returns the Ethernet address and  some  statistics
     of  the Ethernet server of the channel fd.  The result is returned in the
     nwio_ethstat  structure.   The  struct   nwio_ethstat   is   defined   in

          typedef struct nwio_ethstat
                  ether_addr_t nwes_addr;
                  eth_stat_t nwes_stat;
          } nwio_ethstat_t;

          typedef struct eth_stat
              unsigned long ets_recvErr,  /* # receive errors */
                  ets_sendErr,            /* # send error */
                  ets_OVW,                /* # buffer overwrite warnings,
                                             (packets arrive faster than
                                              can be processed) */
                  ets_CRCerr,             /* # crc errors of read */
                  ets_frameAll,           /* # frames not aligned (# bits
                                             not a multiple of 8) */
                  ets_missedP,            /* # packets missed due to too
                                             slow packet processing */
                  ets_packetR,            /* # packets received */
                  ets_packetT,            /* # packets transmitted */
                  ets_transDef,           /* # transmission deferred (there
                                             was a transmission of an
                                             other station in progress */
                  ets_collision,          /* # collisions */
                  ets_transAb,            /* # transmissions aborted due
                                             to excessive collisions */
                  ets_carrSense,          /* # carrier sense lost */
                  ets_fifoUnder,          /* # fifo underruns (processor
                                             is too busy) */
                  ets_fifoOver,           /* # fifo overruns (processor is
                                             too busy) */
                  ets_CDheartbeat,        /* # times unable to transmit
                                             collision signal */
                  ets_OWC;                /* # times out of window
                                             collision */
          } eth_stat_t;

     ioctl(fd, NWIOSETHOPT, &struct nwio_ethopt)

     Before an Ethernet channel can  be  used  to  send  or  receive  Ethernet
     packets,  it  has  to  be  configured  using  the NWIOSETHOPT ioctl.  The
     structure nwio_ethopt is defined in <net/gen/eth_io.h>:

          typedef struct nwio_ethopt
                  u32_t nweo_flags;
                  ether_addr_t nweo_multi, nweo_rem;
                  ether_type_t nweo_type;
          } nwio_ethopt_t;

          #define NWEO_NOFLAGS    0x0000L
          #define NWEO_ACC_MASK   0x0003L
          #       define NWEO_EXCL        0x00000001L
          #       define NWEO_SHARED      0x00000002L
          #       define NWEO_COPY        0x00000003L
          #define NWEO_LOC_MASK   0x0010L
          #       define NWEO_EN_LOC      0x00000010L
          #       define NWEO_DI_LOC      0x00100000L
          #define NWEO_BROAD_MASK 0x0020L
          #       define NWEO_EN_BROAD    0x00000020L
          #       define NWEO_DI_BROAD    0x00200000L
          #define NWEO_MULTI_MASK 0x0040L
          #       define NWEO_EN_MULTI    0x00000040L
          #       define NWEO_DI_MULTI    0x00400000L
          #define NWEO_PROMISC_MASK 0x0080L
          #       define NWEO_EN_PROMISC  0x00000080L
          #       define NWEO_DI_PROMISC  0x00800000L
          #define NWEO_REM_MASK   0x0100L
          #       define NWEO_REMSPEC     0x00000100L
          #       define NWEO_REMANY      0x01000000L
          #define NWEO_TYPE_MASK  0x0200L
          #       define NWEO_TYPESPEC    0x00000200L
          #       define NWEO_TYPEANY     0x02000000L
          #define NWEO_RW_MASK    0x1000L
          #       define NWEO_RWDATONLY   0x00001000L
          #       define NWEO_RWDATALL    0x10000000L

     The configuration is divided in a  number  of  section  (covered  by  the
     xx_MASK  macros).  Options can be set in the nweo_flags field.  The first
     section (NWEO_ACC_MASK) controls the access to a certain Ethernet  packet
     type.   If  NWEO_EXCL  is selected then this is the only channel that can
     send or receive Ethernet packets of the selected type.  If NWEO_SHARED is
     selected  then  multiple  channels (which all have to select NWEO_SHARED)
     can use the same Ethernet type, they all can send  packets  but  incoming
     packets  will  be  delivered  to  at  most  one of them.  If NWEO_COPY is
     selected then multiple channels have access to the same Ethernet type and
     all receive a copy of an incoming packet.

     The  NWEO_LOC_MASK  flags  control  the  delivery  of  packets   with   a
     destination  address  equal  to  the Ethernet address of the machine.  If
     NWEO_EN_LOC is selected then these packets will  be  delivered  and  with
     NWEO_DI_LOC they will be discarded.

     broadcast  packets,  multicast  packets  and  promiscuous mode packets as
     NWEO_LOC_MASK does for local packets.  Except that the precise  multicast
     address is taken from the nweo_multi field.

     The NWEO_REM_MASK flags control whether communication  is  restricted  to
     single  destination or not.  NWEO_REMSPEC restricts sending and receiving
     of packets to the single remote computer specified in the nweo_rem field.
     NWEO_REMANY allows sending to and receiving from any remote computer.

     NWEO_TYPESPEC restricts sending and receiving  of  packets  to  the  type
     specified  in nweo_type.  The type has to be in network byte order (using
     hton(3)).  NWEO_TYPEANY allows any type.

     If the Ethernet header is completely specified by  the  nweo_flags  i.e.,
     NWEO_REMSPEC and NWEO_TYPESPEC are specified, then NWEO_RWDATONLY can  be
     used  to  send  and receive only the data part of an Ethernet packet.  If
     NWEO_RWDATALL is specified then both Ethernet header and data are used.

  PSIP Functions

     [[[No description available yet.]]]

  IP Functions

     ioctl(fd, NWIOGIPCONF, &struct nwio_ipconf)

     The NWIOGIPCONF ioctl reports the Internet Address and the netmask.   For
     the nwio_ipconf structure see the NWIOSIPCONF ioctl below.

     ioctl(fd, NWIOGIPOROUTE, &struct nwio_route)

     The NWIOGIPOROUTE ioctl can be used to  query  an  IP  server  about  its
     structure nwio_route is defined in <net/gen/route.h>:

          typedef struct nwio_route
                  u32_t nwr_ent_no;
                  u32_t nwr_ent_count;
                  ipaddr_t nwr_dest;
                  ipaddr_t nwr_netmask;
                  ipaddr_t nwr_gateway;
                  u32_t nwr_dist;
                  u32_t nwr_flags;
                  u32_t nwr_pref;
          } nwio_route_t;

          #define NWRF_EMPTY      0
          #define NWRF_INUSE      1
          #define NWRF_FIXED      2

     The requested entry is taken from nwr_ent_no.  Entries are  counted  from
     0,  so  the  value  0  can be used for an initial query.  The size of the
     routing table is returned in nwr_ent_count.  The nwr_flags  indicates  if
     the  entry  is in use (NWRF_INUSE) and if the entry was inserted manually
     (using NWIOSIPOROUTE) or generated by the IP server itself.  The route is
     described  by nwr_dest, nwr_netmask, nwr_gateway, nwr_dist, and nwr_pref.
     Nwr_dest and nwr_netmask select the destination addresses.   A  value  of (0x0) in both nwr_dest and nwr_netmask means every host.  A value
     of (0xffffffff)  in  nwr_netmask  means  a  single  host.
     Other  values  of  nwr_netmask  are netmasks for the network specified by
     nwr_dest.  Nwr_gateway is gateway that should be  used.   Nwr_dist  is  a
     minimal distance.  Packets with a time to live smaller than nwr_dist will
     not reach the destination.  If two routes have equal netmask and distance
     fields  but  different  gateways  then  the gateway with highest value in
     nwr_pref is used.

     ioctl(fd, NWIOSIPCONF, &struct nwio_ipconf)

     The NWIOSIPCONF ioctl can be used to  inform  the  IP  server  about  its
     Internet Address and/or its netmask.  Normally an IP server will discover
     its Internet Address using the RARP protocol.  NWIOSIPCONF can be used in
     the  case  that  the RARP failed, or the netmask has to be changed.  Note
     that higher level protocols  (TCP  and  UDP)  assume  that  the  Internet
     Address  of  an  IP  device  does  not change, therefore TCP and UDP stop
     functioning if the Internet Address is changed.

     The structure nwio_ipconf is defined in <net/gen/ip_io.h>:

          typedef struct nwio_ipconf
                  u32_t   nwic_flags;
                  ipaddr_t nwic_ipaddr;
                  ipaddr_t nwic_netmask;
          } nwio_ipconf_t;

          #define NWIC_NOFLAGS            0x0
          #define NWIC_FLAGS              0x3
          #       define NWIC_IPADDR_SET          0x1
          #       define NWIC_NETMASK_SET         0x2

     The function of nwio_ipconf depends  on  the  value  of  nwic_flags.   If
     NWIC_IPADDR_SET  is  set  then  the  Internet  Address  will  be  set  to
     nwic_ipaddr.  If NWIC_NETMASK_SET is set then the Internet  Address  will
     be set to nwic_netmask.

     ioctl(fd, NWIOSIPOPT, &struct nwio_ipopt)

     Before an IP channel can be used, it  has  to  be  configured  using  the
     NWIOSIPOPT    ioctl.     The   structure   nwio_ipopt   is   defined   in

          typedef struct nwio_ipopt
                  u32_t nwio_flags;
                  ipaddr_t nwio_rem;
                  ip_hdropt_t nwio_hdropt;
                  u8_t nwio_tos;
                  u8_t nwio_ttl;
                  u8_t nwio_df;
                  ipproto_t nwio_proto;
          } nwio_ipopt_t;

          #define NWIO_NOFLAGS    0x0000L
          #define NWIO_ACC_MASK   0x0003L
          #       define NWIO_EXCL        0x00000001L
          #       define NWIO_SHARED      0x00000002L
          #       define NWIO_COPY        0x00000003L
          #define NWIO_LOC_MASK   0x0010L
          #       define NWIO_EN_LOC      0x00000010L
          #       define NWIO_DI_LOC      0x00100000L
          #define NWIO_BROAD_MASK 0x0020L
          #       define NWIO_EN_BROAD    0x00000020L
          #       define NWIO_DI_BROAD    0x00200000L
          #define NWIO_REM_MASK   0x0100L
          #       define NWIO_REMSPEC     0x00000100L
          #       define NWIO_REMANY      0x01000000L
          #define NWIO_PROTO_MASK 0x0200L
          #       define NWIO_PROTOSPEC   0x00000200L
          #       define NWIO_PROTOANY    0x02000000L
          #define NWIO_HDR_O_MASK 0x0400L
          #       define NWIO_HDR_O_SPEC  0x00000400L
          #       define NWIO_HDR_O_ANY   0x04000000L
          #define NWIO_RW_MASK    0x1000L
          #       define NWIO_RWDATONLY   0x00001000L
          #       define NWIO_RWDATALL    0x10000000L

     The  options  are  divided   in   several   categories:    NWIO_ACC_MASK,
     NWIO_HDR_O_MASK and NWIO_RW_MASK.   A  channel  is  configured  when  one
     option of each category is set.

     The options covered by NWIO_ACC_MASK control the number of channels  that
     can  use  one  IP  protocol.   If  NWIO_EXCL  is specified then only that
     channel can use a certain IP  protocol.   If  NWIO_SHARED  then  multiple
     channels  that  all  have  to  specify  NWIO_SHARED  can  use the same IP
     protocol, but incoming packets will be delivered to a most  one  channel.
     NWIO_SHARED  does not impose any restrictions.  Every channel gets a copy
     of an incoming packet.

     NWIO_LOC_MASK and NWIO_BROAD_MASK control the delivery  of  packets.   If
     NWIO_EN_LOC  is specified then packets that are explicitly send to the IP
     server are delivered.   If  NWIO_EN_BROAD  is  specified  then  broadcast
     packets  are  delivered.  Either one or both of them can be disabled with

     NWIO_REMSPEC can be used to restrict communication to  one  remote  host.
     This  host is taken from the nwio_rem field.  If any remote host is to be
     allowed then NWIO_REMANY can be used.

     NWIO_PROTOSPEC restricts communication to one IP protocol,  specified  in
     nwio_proto.  NWIO_PROTOANY allows any protocol to be sent or received.

     NWIO_HDR_O_SPEC specifies all IP header options in advance.   The  values
     are taken from nwio_hdropt, nwio_tos, nwio_ttl, and nwio_df.  Nwio_hdropt
     specifies the IP options that should be present in  an  outgoing  packet.
     Ip_hdropt_t is defined in <net/gen/in.h>:

          typedef struct ip_hdropt
                  u8_t iho_opt_siz;
                  u8_t iho_data[IP_MAX_HDR_SIZE-IP_MIN_HDR_SIZE];
          } ip_hdropt_t;

     The bytes of size iho_opt_siz in iho_data are appended to the IP  header.
     Nwio_tos  specifies  the  value of the ``type of service'' bits, nwio_ttl
     gives the value of the ``time  to  live''  field  and  nwio_df  specifies
     whether  fragmentation  is  disallowed  or not.  NWIO_HDR_O_ANY specifies
     that the header options should be specified at each write request.
     NWIO_RWDATONLY specifies that the header should be omitted from  a  write
     request.   This  option  can  only  be  used  when  all header fields are
     specified in previous options:  NWIO_EN_LOC, NWIO_DI_BROAD, NWIO_REMSPEC,
     NWIO_PROTOSPEC  and  NWIO_HDR_O_SPEC.   A  read  operation will also only
     return the data part, so the IP options will be lost.

     ioctl(fd, NWIOSIPOROUTE, &struct nwio_route)

     The  NWIOSIPOROUTE  ioctl  adds  a  route  to  the  routing  table.   See
     NWIOGIPOROUTE  above  for a description of the nwio_route structure.  The
     fields nwr_ent_no and nwr_ent_count are ignored.

  TCP Functions

     ioctl(fd, NWIOTCPCONN, &struct nwio_tcpcl)

     The NWIOTCPCONN ioctl tries to setup a connection with  a  remote  TCP/IP
     server.   The  channel  must  be  fully configured (see NWIOSTCPCONF) and
     values for the local port, the remote port and the remote address have be
     specified  using NWTC_LP_SET or NWTC_LP_SEL, NWTC_SET_RA and NWTC_SET_RP.
     The struct nwio_tcpcl is defined in <net/gen/tcp_io.h> as:

          typedef struct nwio_tcpcl
                  long nwtcl_flags;
                  long nwtcl_ttl;
          } nwio_tcpcl_t;

     Set the nwtcl_flags field to zero before  the  connect  or  listen  call.
     [[[Further explanation of nwio_tcpcl?]]]

     ioctl(fd, NWIOGTCPCONF, &struct nwio_tcpconf)

     This call reports the  current  configuration  of  a  TCP  channel.   The
     nwtc_flags  field  shows  the  status of the access, locport, remaddr and
     remport fields.  Nwtc_locaddr contains the Internet address of the TCP/IP
     server.   Remaddr  contains  the  Internet  address  of the remote TCP/IP
     server when set with NWTC_SET_RA or after a successful connect or  listen
     (see  NWIOTCPCONN  or  NWIOTCPLISTEN).   Nwio_locport  contains the local
     TCP/IP  port  set  with  NWTC_LP_SET  or  the  selected  port  set   with
     NWTC_LP_SEL.   Nwtc_remport  contains  the  TCP port of the remote TCP/IP
     server as set with NWIO_SET_RP or after a successful connect or listen.

     A value of  0  (zero)  is  reported  for  nwtc_remaddr,  nwtc_locport  or
     nwtc_remport when no value is set either explicitly or implicitly.

     ioctl(fd, NWIOTCPLISTEN, &struct nwio_tcpcl)

     The NWIOTCPLISTEN ioctl waits until  a  remote  TCP/IP  server  tries  to
     connect  to  this  channel.   The  channel  has  to  be  configured  (see
     NWIOSTCPCONF).  An additional restriction is that the local port must  be
     set  (with  NWTC_LP_SET)  or  selected (with NWTC_LP_SEL).  When a remote
     address is set only connections for that host are accepted,  and  when  a
     remote port is set only connections from that port are accepted.  After a
     successful listen NWIOGTCPCONF can be used to find out what  the  address
     and port of the other side are.

     ioctl(fd, NWIOSTCPCONF, &struct nwio_tcpconf)

     Before  a  TCP  channel  can  be  used  it  must  configured  using   the
     NWIOSTCPCONF  ioctl.  The parameters to NWIOSTCPCONF are the channel file
     descriptor and a struct nwio_tcpconf as defined in <net/gen/tcp_io.h>:

          typedef struct nwio_tcpconf
                  u32_t nwtc_flags;
                  ipaddr_t nwtc_locaddr;
                  ipaddr_t nwtc_remaddr;
                  tcpport_t nwtc_locport;
                  tcpport_t nwtc_remport;
          } nwio_tcpconf_t;

          #define NWTC_NOFLAGS    0x0000L
          #define NWTC_ACC_MASK   0x0003L
          #       define NWTC_EXCL        0x00000001L
          #       define NWTC_SHARED      0x00000002L
          #       define NWTC_COPY        0x00000003L
          #define NWTC_LOCPORT_MASK       0x0030L
          #       define NWTC_LP_UNSET    0x00000010L
          #       define NWTC_LP_SET      0x00000020L
          #       define NWTC_LP_SEL      0x00000030L
          #define NWTC_REMADDR_MASK       0x0100L
          #       define NWTC_SET_RA      0x00000100L
          #       define NWTC_UNSET_RA    0x01000000L
          #define NWTC_REMPORT_MASK       0x0200L
          #       define NWTC_SET_RP      0x00000200L
          #       define NWTC_UNSET_RP    0x02000000L

     A tcp channel is considered configured when one flag in each category has
     been  selected.   Thus one of NWTC_EXCL, NWTC_SHARED or NWTC_COPY, one of
     NWTC_LP_UNSET,  NWTC_LP_SET  or  NWTC_LP_SEL,  one  of   NWTC_SET_RA   or

     The acc flags control the access to a certain TCP port.  NWTC_EXCL  means
     exclusive  access.   An  attempt to configure a channel will be denied if
     the same port is specified as that of a channel that requested  exclusive
     access.   NWTC_SHARED  indicates  that several channels use the same port
     but cooperate.  If the shared mode is specified for one channel than  all
     other channel that use the same port should also be configured  with  the
     NWTC_SHARED  flag.   NWTC_COPY  is specified when the programmer does not
     care about other channels.  This is the default.

     The locport flags control which  TCP  port  is  used  for  communication.
     NWTC_LP_UNSET  indicates  the  absence  of  a  local  port.   This is the
     default.  NWTC_LP_SET means that  the  nwtc_locport  field  contains  the
     local  port  to be used by TCP.  This value must be in network byte order
     (see hton(3).)  NWTC_LP_SEL requests the TCP server to pick a port.  This
     port will be in the range from 32768 to 65535 and will be unique.

     The remaddr flags specify which hosts  are  acceptable  for  connections.
     NWTC_SET_RA  indicates  that  only  connection  to  the host specified in
     nwtc_remaddr are acceptable.  Nwtc_remaddr  should  be  in  network  byte
     order  (see  hton(3).)  NWTC_UNSET_RA allows every host on the other side
     of a connection.  This is the default.

     The  remport  flags  specify  which  remote  ports  are  acceptable   for
     connections.   NWTC_SET_RP  indicates  that  only  the  port specified in
     nwtc_remport is acceptable.  NWTC_UNSET_RP allows every port on the other
     side of a connection.  This is the default.

     ioctl(fd, NWIOTCPSHUTDOWN)

     The NWIOTCPSHUTDOWN tells the TCP/IP server that no  more  data  will  be
     sent  over  the channel specified by fd.  This command can be issued when
     the channel is connected to a remote TCP/IP server.   The  TCP/IP  server
     will  tell  the  remote TCP/IP server and the client of the remote TCP/IP
     server will receive an end-of-file indication.

     ioctl(fd, NWIOGTCPOPT, &struct nwio_tcpopt)
     ioctl(fd, NWIOSTCPOPT, &struct nwio_tcpopt)

     The behaviour of a TCP channel may be changed  by  setting  a  number  of
     options.   The TCP options can be obtained with the NWIOGTCPOPT ioctl and
     set with the NWIOSTCPOPT ioctl.  The  options  are  passed  in  a  struct
     nwio_tcpopt as defined in <net/gen/tcp_io.h>:

          typedef struct nwio_tcpopt
                  u32_t nwto_flags;
          } nwio_tcpconf_t;

          #define NWTO_NOFLAG     0x0000L
          #define NWTO_SND_URG_MASK       0x0001L
          #       define NWTO_SND_URG     0x00000001L
          #       define NWTO_SND_NOTURG  0x00010000L
          #define NWTO_RCV_URG_MASK       0x0002L
          #       define NWTO_RCV_URG     0x00000002L
          #       define NWTO_RCV_NOTURG  0x00020000L
          #define NWTO_BSD_URG_MASK       0x0004L
          #       define NWTO_BSD_URG     0x00000004L
          #define NWTO_DEL_RST_MASK       0x0008L
          #       define NWTO_DEL_RST     0x00000008L

     The NWTO_SND_URG option causes bytes written to the channel  to  be  send
     out  as  urgent data.  On receiving an EURG error the NWTO_RCV_URG option
     must be set to switch over to reading urgent data.  When all urgent  data
     has  been  read  an  ENOURG error will follow, indicating that the option
     must be cleared with NWTO_RCV_NOTURG.  Alas  the  BSD  implementation  of
     urgent  data  disagrees  with the RFC's, so to be BSD compatible one must
     set the NWTO_BSD_URG option beforehand on a channel that is  to  send  or
     receive  urgent  data.  Given that the BSD implementation is the regarded
     as the TCP/IP  standard  one  should  always  use  the  BSD  style.   The
     NWTO_DEL_RST  option  delays  a failure response on a connect to the same
     port as the current open connection.  Without this option a connect would
     fail  if  a server is not yet listening.  With this option a connect will
     linger on until the server starts listening.  This option is useful for a
     server  that  opens  a  connection,  tells  the remote end the local port
     number and then listens (FTP), or for a program that  forks  off  servers
     for incoming connections (TELNET).  A new connection may come in before a
     new listen can be started, so it is nice if the new connect doesn't fail.
     Use this option only when it is clearly needed.

  UDP Functions

     ioctl(fd, NWIOGUDPOPT, &struct nwio_udpopt)

     The NWIOGUDPOPT ioctl returns the current options that  result  from  the
     default  options  and the options set with NWIOSUDPOPT.  When NWUO_LP_SEL
     or NWUO_LP_SET is selected the local port is  returned  in  nwuo_locport.
     When NWUO_RP_SET is selected the remote port is returned in nwuo_remport.
     The  local  address  is  always  returned  in  nwuo_locaddr,   and   when
     NWUO_RA_SET is selected the remote address is returned in nwuo_remaddr.

     ioctl(fd, NWIOSUDPOPT, &struct nwio_udpopt)

     A UDP channel must be configured using the NWIOSUDPOPT ioctl  before  any
     data  can  be  read or written.  NWIOSUDPOPT takes two parameters, a file
     descriptor to an open UDP device and pointer to a  nwio_udpopt  structure
     that describes the requested configuration.  The nwio_udpopt structure is
     defined in <net/gen/udp_io.h> as:

          typedef struct nwio_udpopt
                  unsigned long nwuo_flags;
                  udpport_t nwuo_locport;
                  udpport_t nwuo_remport;
                  ipaddr_t nwuo_locaddr;
                  ipaddr_t nwuo_remaddr;

          } nwio_udpopt_t;

          #define NWUO_NOFLAGS            0x0000L
          #define NWUO_ACC_MASK           0x0003L
          #define         NWUO_EXCL               0x00000001L
          #define         NWUO_SHARED             0x00000002L
          #define         NWUO_COPY               0x00000003L
          #define NWUO_LOCPORT_MASK       0x000CL
          #define         NWUO_LP_SEL             0x00000004L
          #define         NWUO_LP_SET             0x00000008L
          #define         NWUO_LP_ANY             0x0000000CL
          #define NWUO_LOCADDR_MASK       0x0010L
          #define         NWUO_EN_LOC             0x00000010L
          #define         NWUO_DI_LOC             0x00100000L
          #define NWUO_BROAD_MASK         0x0020L
          #define         NWUO_EN_BROAD           0x00000020L
          #define         NWUO_DI_BROAD           0x00200000L
          #define NWUO_REMPORT_MASK       0x0100L
          #define         NWUO_RP_SET             0x00000100L
          #define         NWUO_RP_ANY             0x01000000L
          #define NWUO_REMADDR_MASK       0x0200L
          #define         NWUO_RA_SET             0x00000200L
          #define         NWUO_RA_ANY             0x02000000L
          #define NWUO_RW_MASK            0x1000L
          #define         NWUO_RWDATONLY          0x00001000L
          #define         NWUO_RWDATALL           0x10000000L
          #define NWUO_IPOPT_MASK         0x2000L
          #define         NWUO_EN_IPOPT           0x00002000L
          #define         NWUO_DI_IPOPT           0x20000000L

     A UDP channel is considered configured when one flag in each category has
     been  selected.   Thus one of NWUO_EXCL, NWUO_SHARED or NWUO_COPY, one of
     NWUO_LP_SEL,  NWUO_LP_SET  or  NWUO_LP_ANY,   one   of   NWUO_EN_LOC   or
     or  NWUO_RP_ANY,   one   of   NWUO_RA_SET,   or   NWUO_RA_ANY,   one   of
     NWUO_RWDATONLY,   or   NWUO_RWDATALL,   and   one  of  NWUO_EN_IPOPT,  or
     NWUO_DI_IPOPT.  The acc flags control the access to a certain  UDP  port.
     NWUO_EXCL  means  exclusive  access:  no other channel can use this port.
     NWUO_SHARED means shared  access:   only  channels  that  specify  shared
     access  can use this port and all packets that are received are handed to
     at most one channel.  NWUO_COPY imposes no  access  restriction  and  all
     channels get a copy of every received packet for that port.

     The locport flags control the selection of the UDP port for this channel.
     NWUO_LP_SEL requests the server to pick a port.  This port will be in the
     range from 32768 to 65535 and it will be unique.   NWUO_LP_SET  sets  the
     local  port to the value of the nwuo_locport field.  NWUO_LP_ANY does not
     select a port.  Reception of data is therefore not  possible  but  it  is
     possible to send data.  (See tcpip_read, and tcpip_write above).

     The locaddr flags control the reception of packets.  NWUO_EN_LOC  enables
     the  reception  of  packets  with  the  local  IP address as destination.
     NWUO_DI_LOC disables the reception of packet for the local IP address.

     The  broad  flags   control   the   reception   of   broadcast   packets.
     NWUO_EN_BROAD   enables   the   reception   of   broadcast   packets  and
     NWUO_DI_BROAD disables the reception of broadcast packets.

     The remport flags let the client to specify one specific remote UDP  port
     or to allow any remote port.  NWUO_RP_SET sets the remote UDP port to the
     value of nwuo_remport.  Only packets with a matching remote port will  be
     delivered  and all packets will be sent to that port.  NWUO_RP_ANY allows
     reception of packets form any port  and  when  transmitting  packets  the
     remote port has to be specified.

     The remaddr flags control the remote IP address.   NWUO_RA_SET  sets  the
     remote  IP  address  the  value  of nwuo_remaddr.  Only packets from that
     address will be delivered and all packets will be sent to  that  address.
     NWUO_RA_ANY   allows   reception  of  packets  from  any  host  and  when
     transmitting packets the remote host has to be specified.

     The rw flags control the format of the data to be sent or received.  With
     NWUO_RWDATONLY  only  the data part of a UDP packet is sent to the server
     and only the data part is received from the  server.   The  NWUO_RWDATALL
     mode  presents  the data part of a UDP packet with a header that contains
     the source and destination IP address, source and destination UDP  ports,
     the  IP  options,  etc.  The server expects such a header in front of the
     data to be transmitted.

     The ipopt flags control the delivery  and  transmission  of  IP  options.
     When  NWUO_EN_IPOPT  is set IP, options will be delivered and sent.  When
     NWUO_DI_IPOPT is set IP option will be stripped from received packets and
     no IP options will be sent.


     /dev/eth[01]      First and second raw ethernet.

     /dev/psip[01]     First and second Pseudo IP network.

     /dev/ip[0123]     IP  devices  for  two  ethernets  and  two  Pseudo   IP

     /dev/tcp[0123]    TCP devices for same four networks.

     /dev/udp[0123]    UDP devices.

     /dev/eth, /dev/psip, /dev/ip, /dev/tcp, /dev/udp
                       Devices for the default network, links to  the  devices
                       above.  Eth is only present if ethernet is the default,
                       psip only for pseudo IP.


     hton(3), oneC_sum(3), set_net_default(8), boot(8).


     Several errors may be returned by the TCP/IP server.  The error  code  is
     found in the errno variable if the read, write, or ioctl call returns -1.
     The TCP/IP error codes defined in <errno.h> are:

     EPACKSIZE              This indicates an attempt to read or write with  a
                            buffer that is too large or too small.

     EOUTOFBUFS             The  TCP/IP  server  has  insufficient  memory  to
                            execute the request.

     EBADIOCTL              This indicates an attempt to execute a command the
                            particular   server   does  not  understand.   For
                            example, a NWIOGTCPCONF on an ETH channel.

     EBADMODE               The request is refused because the channel is  not
                            fully  configured,  in  the  wrong  state  or  the
                            parameters are invalid.

     EBADDEST               This indicates an illegal destination address  for
                            a packet.

     EDSTNORCH              The destination is not reachable.

     EISCONN                The channel  is  already  connected  so  a  second
                            request is refused.

     EADDRINUSE             This address is in use.

     ECONNREFUSED           The connection is refused by the other side.

     ECONNRESET             The   connection    is    reset    (non-gracefully
                            terminated) by the other side.

     ETIMEDOUT              The connection is terminated  due  to  an  expired

     EURG                   Urgent data is present  and  the  current  receive
                            mode does not allow urgent data to be transferred.

     ENOURG                 No urgent data is present and a request  came  for
                            urgent data.

     ENOTCONN               The request requires a connected channel  and  the
                            channel is not connected.

     ESHUTDOWN              The  connection  is  shut  down.    That   is,   a
                            NWIOTCPSHUTDOWN  has been executed so no more data
                            can be transmitted.

     ENOCONN                The connection does not exist.

     EGENERIC               A generic error code for extremely weird cases.


     Philip Homburg (philip@cs.vu.nl)