sh, ., break, case, cd, continue, eval,  exec,  exit,  export,  for,  if,
     read, readonly, set, shift, trap, umask, wait, while - shell


     sh [-eiknqstvxu] [-c str] [file]


     -c   Execute the commands in str

     -e   Quit on error

     -i   Interactive mode; ignore QUIT, TERMINATE, INTERRUPT

     -k   Look for name=value everywhere on command line

     -n   Do not execute commands

     -q   Change qflag from sig_ign to sig_del

     -s   Read commands from standard input

     -t   Exit after reading and executing one command

     -v   Echo input lines as they are read

     -x   Trace

     -u   Unset variables


     sh script           # Run a shell script


     Sh is the shell, which forms the user's main interface with  the  system.
     On  startup,  the  shell  reads  /etc/profile and $HOME/.profile, if they
     exist, and executes any commands they contain.  The Minix shell has  most
     of  the features of the V7 (Bourne) shell, including redirection of input
     and output, pipes, magic  characters,  background  processes,  and  shell
     scripts.   A  brief summary follows, but whole books have been written on
     shell programming alone.

     Some of the more common notations are:

        date                    # Regular command
        sort <file              # Redirect stdin (standard input)
        sort <file1  >file2     # Redirect stdin and stdout
        cc file.c  2>error      # Redirect stderr
        a.out >f  2>&1          # Combine standard output and standard error
        sort <file1  >>file2    # Append output to file2
        sort <file1  >file2 &   # Background job
        (ls -l; a.out) &        # Run two background commands sequentially
        sort <file | wc         # Two-process pipeline
        sort <f | uniq | wc     # Three-process pipeline
        ls -l *.c               # List all files ending in .c
        ls -l [a-c]*            # List all files beginning with a, b, or c
        ls -l ?                 # List all one-character file names
        ls \?                   # List the file whose name is question mark
        ls '???'                # List the file whose name is  three  question
        v=/usr/ast              # Set shell variable v
        ls -l $v                # Use shell variable v
        PS1='Hi! '              # Change the primary prompt to Hi!
        PS2='More: '            # Change the secondary prompt to More:
        ls -l $HOME             # List the home directory
        echo $PATH              # Echo the search path
        echo $?                 # Echo exit  status  of  previous  command  in
        echo $$                 # Echo shell's pid in decimal
        echo $!                 # Echo PID of last background process
        echo $#                 # Echo number of parameters (shell script)
        echo $2                 # Echo second parameter (shell script)
        echo "$2"               # Echo  second  parameter  without   expanding
        echo $*                 # Echo all parameters (shell script)
        echo $@                 # Echo all parameters (shell script)
        echo "$@"               # Echo all parameters without expanding spaces

     The shell uses the following variables for specific purposes:

        SHELL                   the path of the current shell
        HOME                    the default value for the cd(1) command
        PATH                    the  directories  to  be  searched   to   find
        IFS                     the  internal  field  separators  for  command
        PS1                     the primary shell prompt
        PS2                     the secondary shell prompt

     There are various forms of substitution on the shell command line:

        `...`                   Command string between back-quotes is replaced
                                by its output
        "..."                   Permits variable substitution between quotes
        '...'                   Inhibits variable substitution between quotes
        $VAR                    Replaced by contents of variable VAR
        ${VAR}                  Delimits  variable  VAR  from  any   following

     The expressions below depend on whether or not VAR has ever been set.  If
     VAR has been set, they give:

        ${VAR-str}              Replace expression by VAR, else by str
        ${VAR=str}              Replace expression by VAR, else by str and set
                                VAR to str
        ${VAR?str}              Replace expression by VAR, else print str  and
                                exit shell
        ${VAR+str}              Replace expression by str, else by null string

     If a colon is placed after VAR, the expressions depend on whether or  not
     VAR is currently set and non-null.

     The shell has a number of built-in commands:

        :                       return true status
        . fn                    execute shell script fn on current path
        break [n]               break from a for, until or while loop; exit  n
        continue [n]            continue a for, until or  while  loop;  resume
                                nth loop
        cd [dir]                change  current  working  directory;  move  to
        eval cmd                rescan cmd, performing substitutions
        eval                    rescan the current command line
        exec cmd                execute cmd without creating a new process
        exec <|>                with no command name, modify shell I/O
        exit [n]                exit a shell program, with exit value n
        export [var]            export var to shell's children; list  exported
        pwd                     print  the  name  of   the   current   working
        read var                read a line from stdin and assign to var
        readonly [var]          make var readonly; list readonly variables
        set -f                  set shell flag (+f unsets flag)
        set str                 set positional parameter to str
        set                     show the current shell variables
        shift                   reassign positional parameters  (except  ${0})
                                one left
        times                   print accumulated user and  system  times  for
        trap arg sigs           trap signals sigs and run arg on receipt
        trap                    list trapped signals
        umask [n]               set the user  file  creation  mask;  show  the
                                current umask
        wait [n]                wait for process pid n; wait for all processes

     The shell also contains a programming language, which has  the  following
     operators and flow control statements:

        #                       Comment        The rest of the line is ignored
        =                       Assignment     Set a shell variable
        &&                      Logical AND    Execute second command only  if
                                               first succeeds
        ||                      Logical OR     Execute second command only  if
                                               first fails
        (...)                   Group          Execute    enclosed    commands
                                               before continuing

        for                     For loop (for ... in ... do ... done)
        case                    Case statement ((case ... ) ... ;; ... esac)
        esac                    Case statement end
        while                   While loop (while ... do ... done)
        do                      Do/For/While loop start (do ... until ...)
        done                    For/While loop end
        if                      Conditional statement (if ...  else  ...  elif
                                ... fi)
        in                      For loop selection
        then                    Conditional statement start
        else                    Conditional statement alternative
        elif                    Conditional statement end
        until                   Do loop end
        fi                      Conditional statement end


     echo(1), expr(1), pwd(1), true(1).