ls - list the contents of a directory


     ls [-acdfgilqrstu1ACFLMRTX] [name...]


     For each file argument, list it.  For each directory argument,  list  its
     contents.   The  current  working  directory  is listed when no files are
     named.  Information is printed multicolumn on terminals, single column if
     the  output is redirected.  The options control what information is shown
     and how.

     Ls has two sources other then the commands line to draw options from, one
     is the environment variable LSOPTS and is used only when the output of ls
     is displayed on a terminal.  The other is the name of ls itself.   If  ls
     is  linked  to another name, then all the characters after the l are used
     as flags too, except that f, r, t and x are translated to F, R, T and  X.
     Useful links are ll, lf, lm and lx.

     Files whose names start with a dot are by default not listed.

     Note that standard Minix doesn't have symbolic links or  sockets  and  -u
     and  -c  are  no-ops  on  a V1 file system, since only modified times are
     stored in V1 inodes.


     -a   All entries are listed, even . and ..

     -c   Use inode changed time for sorting, listing or searching.

     -d   Do not list contents of directories, but list the directory itself.

     -f   Do not sort (should also be: treat a file as a directory,  but  that
          can't be implemented portably).

     -g   Suppress the owner name on a long listing (implies -l).

     -i   I-node number printed in first column.

     -l   Long listing: mode, links, owner, group, size  and  time.   (ls  -lC
          uses columns in a wide enough window!)

     -n   Print numerical user and group id's.

     -q   Print nongraphic characters as '?' (default on terminals).

     -r   Reverse the sort order.

     -s   Give size in kilobytes.

     -t   Sort by time (modified time default), latest first.

     -u   Use last accessed time for sorting, listing or searching.

     -1   Print in one column.

     -A   List all entries, but  not  .  and  ..  (This  is  the  default  for
          privileged users.)

     -C   Print multicolumn (default on terminals).

     -F   Mark directories with a '/', executables with  a  '*',  UNIX  domain
          sockets with a '=' and symbolic links with a '@' behind the name.

     -L   Print the file referenced by a symbolic link instead of the link.

     -M   List mode before name (implies -C).

     -R   List directory trees recursively.

     -T   Group files  by  type,  i.e.  regular  files  together,  directories
          together, etc.

     -X   Print crunched mode and size before name (implies -C).  Only the rwx
          permissions  that  its caller has on the file, but they are in upper
          case if the caller owns the file and has given the permission to the
          callers  group or other users.  The size is listed in bytes (<= 5K),
          or rounded up kilo, mega or gigabytes.


     du(1), stat(1), stat(2).


     Having to type ls -C when viewing files through more(1).

     Is only portable to systems with the same st_mode (see stat(2)).

     The LSOPTS variable and the -M, -T and -X flags are not found on other ls
     implementations.  (They have there own nonstandard flags.)


     Kees J. Bot (